This study,FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN LAGOS CIVIL SERVICE (2007-2015) contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords:FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN LAGOS CIVIL SERVICE (2007-2015)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Effective and adequate use of resources at hand for maximum productivity and achievement of set objectives is the goal of every organization, public or private sector notwithstanding.
The human resources is considered as the most important, most valuable, most complicated and the least predicable. For optimum productivity, human resources are to be obtained in the right quantity, right quality, and at the right time. The goals of any organization is achieved through the quality input of human resources (Mukoro, 2005). Thus, every organization regardless of its size, product or service must recruit applicants to fill vacant positions. The productivity and efficiency of any organization whether private or public sector is dependent on the calibre of the workforce. For optimum productivity to be achieved, the availability of a competent and effective workforce is inevitable. However, this is attainable only through an articulated job analysis and recruitment exercise.
Due to diversity in Africa (Nigeria inclusive) management became a problem and this originated from the colonial period when people from different socio-cultural backgrounds were brought together to become ‘one nation’ (George, 2010). Nigeria, is no doubt a divided country and there is a need for an affirmative action programmes aimed at least correcting or managing the weighty inequalities between different ‘nationalities’ within the population (Mustapha, 2007), through which Federal Character Commission (FCC) was established and mandated to enforce the Federal Character Principles (FCP).
Federal Character Principle was adopted as an alternatives policy for the management of the public service in Nigeria for even representation and accommodation of multiplicity of groups. The introduction of federal character principle was borne out of a dire need to correct the imbalance in terms of employment and appointment to government ministries and agencies among different ethnic groups, regions, states and local governments (Akpanabia, 2012).
This is also to ensure fair-play, order and equity between diverse ethnic nationalities that make up the country Nigeria in the distribution of resources equitably, which is aimed at promoting productivity, loyalty for economic development and national harmony for all and sundry (Briggs, 2007).
However, the desired change has not been realized since the introduction of Federal character principle in Nigeria in 1979. Instead, it has since its inception encouraged mediocrity in civil service, a situation which turned the civil service into a dumping ground for ill motivated and incompetent servants from different parts of the country, Lagos state inclusive.
According to Okpata (2011:72), it has become bedrock of corruption, nepotism and inefficiency. The quality and standards has continued to remain below average and constantly depreciated which has in turn marred the civil service productivity in Nigeria.
In the civil service that is governmentally controlled, good structure does not by itself guarantee good performance and productivity. There is the need to match the civil service with very sound and quality staff so that performance would become more effective. Indeed, target setting; performance measurement and monitoring will be grossly affected without the necessary impetus giving to systematic recruitment and selection mechanisms (Eneanya, 2009).
Federal character principle has no doubt caused a major anomaly in civil service which has obviously led to gross inefficiency and ineffectiveness and little or low productivity in the country. However, this current study seek to investigate the Principle of Federal Character and Productivity in Lagos State Civil Service between 2007 to 2015.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
As noted in the proceeding phase of this study, civil service is the vehicle that is responsible for conduction of government’s activities. Civil service which was instituted by the former colonial masters as a platform for achieving their socio-economic and political objectives. The succeeding government in Nigeria, both federal and state have all replicated the same structure of administration.
In the civil service, there are various problems that hinders its operation and productivity. One of the problems is the recruitment and selection of staff that are not qualified or those that do not possess the requisite skills to deliver the required services through federal character principle. Some of the staff being absorbed into system are kits and kin of the powers that be.
In Nigeria, federal character has become more of a curse than a blessing. The total system collapse in Nigeria’s socioeconomic and political environment can be attributed to the Federal character practice (Akpanabia, 2012).
Federal character has damaged the prospects of our economic and social development by relegation to the background the principle of excellence in the civil service without which any modern nation is doomed to a position of inferiority and economic quagmire. This is so as the principle of excellence is not encouraged in our civil service because of sectional, regional, ethnic and state consideration (called Federal character).
In Nigeria today, our political and economic system are in shambles because professionals and experienced individuals are over-looked due to the fact that they are more in one part of the country than the other. The imbalance in the literacy rate between the South and North of Nigeria has made it impossible to have qualified people in sensitive government positions. In Nigeria today, the North would rather let an unqualified person to hold a high position in civil service instead of allowing qualified Southerner to play the role.
The unrestrained application of the federal character in the civil service and other public services, usually without respect for minimum standard, has meant that professionalism is in danger in the public services of the federation. According to Ekeh (1989:34), as long as tenure and promotion are not safeguarded from the province of federal character, we are in danger of weakening and damaging the public service. These problems have pose a major challenge to the civil service.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions for this study are as follows:
- Are standard maintained in the course of recruitment into the Lagos State civil service using federal character principle?
- Have the federal character principle enhanced productivity of Lagos state civil service between 2007 to 2015?
- What are the implications of federal character principle and procedures on employee productivity in Lagos State civil service between 2007 to 2015?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research study aims at evaluating the implications of federal character principle on productivity in Lagos State civil service. In pursuance of this therefore, this study hopes to achieve the following aims and objectives:
- To determine the standard maintained in the course of recruitment into the Lagos State civil service using federal character principle
- To examine the impacts of federal character principle on productivity of Lagos state civil service between 2007 to 2015
- To explore the implications of federal character principle and procedures on employee productivity in Lagos State civil service between 2007 to 2015
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is focused solely on Federal Character and Productivity in Lagos State Civil Service between 2007 – 2015. The study elaborated more on the historical background of federal character principle introduced into the Nigeria political and administrative system because of the multi-ethnic nature of the Nigeria Federation, so as to promote fairness among different ethnic nationalities in the equitable distribution of resources like employment, appointment, and election to any public position to promote national loyalty and encourage national development. Furthermore, this study extensively reveal the application of Federal character principle (or its corollary; the quota system), in the public service of Nigeria is seen as the democratization of our public bureaucracy through the principle of representation as contained in the 1979 constitution of Nigeria.
It also examines how federal character principle democratizes personnel management, development and promotion of staff in the public service which led to the appointment and training of mediocre in service as its practice obviously negates one of the important principles of Weberian ideal Bureaucracy.
- LIMITATION OF STUDY
Like every other study, this study is limited in many ways, one of which is the inability to study the effect of federal character principle on productivity in all the government ministries and agencies. This is as a result of the researcher’s inability to visit every part of Lagos civil service due to financial constraints and most importantly, time factor. However, results from findings of this research may be replicated in all other ministries and agencies of Lagos civil service between 2007 and 2015.
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
For this study, survey design will be used by the researcher. The study will attempt to access how federal character principle has affected productivity in Lagos civil service between 2007-2015.Survey research will be utilized because it is seen as the most appropriate for collection of data needed, as this study will sought the opinion of citizens that require the service of public service in Lagos State.
In carrying out this study, both primary and secondary information will be used. Primary data will be sourced from the respondents through questionnaire and oral interview while secondary sources of data collection will involves Journals, Text books, Newspapers, Magazines etc.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Civil Servant: A civil servant or public servant is a person in the public sector employed for a government department or agency. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the “civil service” varies from country to country.
Civil Service: This is the practices and procedures essential for effective performance of the civilian function entrusted to the executive branch of government comprising those public servants appointed on merit on a permanent, contract or temporary basis without any inferences of political considerations for the purpose of executing public policy. Thus, the civil service whenever referred to in this work means federal government employee, organization practices and procedures directly involved in public administration.
Federal Character: Federal character refers to the distinctive desire of the peoples of Nigeria to promote national unity, foster national loyalty and give every citizen of Nigeria a sense of belonging to the nation notwithstanding the diversities of ethnic origin, culture, language or religion which may exist and which it is their desire to nourish, harness to the enrichment of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
National Ideology: This is a comparatively steady system of ideas and principles, that, as any other ideology, is accepted by its followers. The aim of the NI is to define how the nation must live, ideas it should follow to achieve complete self-realization.
Quota: A method of setting a limit on how much of something a country or company is allowed to have, produce, import, etc. A quota is inflexible number that be reached within a given period of time, regardless of the methods used or the availability of candidates. Here, there is the possibility or every tendency that whoever presents himself will be accepted to fill the gap: thus, the acceptable standard might be lowered to achieve this aim. That seems to be the fate of the federal character principle as it is now being applied especially in the federal civil service, considering the grave imbalance between the regions or ethnic groups in Nigeria.
Keywords: FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN LAGOS CIVIL SERVICE (2007-2015)
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