PROJECT TOPIC :IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEO ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
CHAPTERS: Chapter 1 – 5
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Keywords:INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEO ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT
The study investigated the Impact of Instructional Video on Students Achievement in Junior Secondary School. The population for this study comprised 140 Junior Secondary School (JSS 1) Students. A simple random sampling technique was used, where two out of the fourteen schools were selected in Educational district 1. Quasi-experimental design was adopted which involves two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group was subjected to treatment using instructional video but the control group was taught without instructional video (traditional method).The instrument for the study is a 20 multiple-choice self-designed Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT).The instrument was validated by the researcher supervisor, three Educational Technologist lecturers.Three research questions were raised and three hypotheses were also formulated to guide the study. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested using independent t-test at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis showed that there is significant different in the mean achievement score of students taught social studies using instructional video instructional video and those taught using traditional instructional method. There is significant difference between the performance of students taught with the use of instructional video and those taught without instructional video. There is significant difference between the mean achievement scores of the female and male students taught social studies using instructional video. On the basis of these findings recommendations were made that Teachers should be fully and adequately trained to make use of instructional video through regular workshops and seminars. Teachers of Social Studies are encouraged to search for necessary instructional video that can appeal to the senses of learners, arouse their interest, encourage their participation, make learning more meaningful and promote academic standard.
1.1 Background of Study.
Learning is the acquisition of knowledge and skills possible through systematic interaction between teachers and learners. It happens in involvement of teacher, learner, methodology and materials interaction. Parts of these materials are known as instructional resources (Akerele, Aguele & Anyanwu, 2012). It has been proved that teachers have an important influence on students’ academic achievement. If the teacher is ineffective, students under the teacher’s tutelage will achieve inadequate progress academically. This is regardless of how similar or different the students are in terms of individual potential in academic achievement. Some of the problems identified so far include poor teaching method, lack of qualified teachers, poor infrastructure and inadequate laboratory facilities, teacher centered instruction and non-availability and utilization of instructional material (Yaki, 2011, Olorukoba, 2007).
The traditional (or conventional) teaching methods are teacher-centered and include the use of lectures and discussions while the problem solving element is presented by and/or discussed with the instructor; the syllabus, the teaching materials and the student assessments are determined by the tutor and transmitted to students in various lectures (Cottel & Millis, 1993). The traditional approach to teaching, as ancient as formal teaching itself, involves the directed flow of information from teacher as sage to student as receptacle. One of the major problems faced by students is poor method of teaching or teaching approach from the teacher to the student, thus resulting to inability of the student to remember what has been learnt. This problem is often caused by too much theoretical expression by the teachers while learners are passive listeners. Students memorize and regurgitate facts and concepts. These problems confronting the teaching and learning can be handled using electronic media;(video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CD-ROM and online content) process and other interactive media software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment aimed at achieving certain instructional goals (Onasanya, 2002).
Media can be used to transform classroom instructions into a series of rich memorable experiences and thus, reduce boredom and forgetfulness in teaching. In the recent years, the development of microcomputer in the process of teaching and learning has become widespread in educational institutions (Onasanya, 2002). Abimbade (2000) reported that the use of computer (1) increases the time of learners devote to learning , (2) enhance the speed of availability of data and information, (3) provide immediate feed-back, (4) assist less qualified teachers and (5) increase teachers efficiently and effectiveness. Adeniyi (2002) pointed out that students taught civic education with visual aid achieved higher cognitively than those taught without media aid.
Technology nowadays is common among schools, offices, and to every individual, as this supports learning and helps in developing knowledge, wherein, integration is the use of technology to enhance, reiterate, present, and assess how students understand the syllabus or the program (Edutopia, 2005). Video as a media in education comes as the invention of educational technology. They are termed as instructional video. They are created for use in classrooms or in other educational settings. They are usually evaluated for language use, conflict and length and many of them are packaged as multimedia resources that include students’ workbooks, teacher’s guides, video transcripts and audio tapes. Agommuoh and Nzewi, (2003) reported that video-taped instruction has the qualities of providing a semi-permanent, complete and audio’s visual record of event.
Using instructional videos in teaching is not new. They date back to prehistoric times when cave instructors used 16mm projectors to show cave students examples of insurance company marketing commercials in business courses (Berk, 2009). Instructional Video as a change instrument in the classroom has undertaken a unique cycle of adoption over time. Broadcast television and film were first used sparingly, primarily as out-of-the classroom forms of enrichment (Greenberg, 2012). Presenting the cycle in the year 1960-1970s, television films were on trend, 1980, video tapes were used, and 1990s marked booming of Two-way videoconferencing, camcorders and video CDs. In the year 2000, DVDs, streaming videos, the popularly youtube, and camera-enabled smartphones were in fashion (Zanetis, 2012).
Instructional video based materials boost student creativity. Access to video can help motivate students and create a distinctive context for their learning experience. Based on a true story- the incorporation of video in the classroom, it has allowed students and teachers to help in broadcasting school announcements, use pre- recorded classes to overcome teacher shortages and influence Internet-based digital video to enhance self-directed learning (Umar, 2012).
Instructional video is of great effect in education. They have the capacity to stir emotions, stimulate viewers, and alter attitudes. Illustrations, sounds, and words have the power to seize attention, to simplify concepts, to help to overcome physical difficulties and
restrictions of space, size and time. Moreover, use of Instructional video in teaching and learning can accommodate for the students’ preferences. Use of a combination of modern educational technology, such as a computer, video, and hypertext with its feature of combining text, graphic art, sound, and. animation, as teaching tools in many educational institutions, marked a new era. The high level of interaction which computer-based teaching provides is the key to its value.
The benefits of instructional video as an important tool in teaching and learning of wide range of topics in social studies could enable students understand and learn the subject better.
Instructors and even students rely or use educative videos to learn, compare and understand concepts.Videotape recorders can be used in a number of different ways to enhance teaching and learning in both large groups and small groups. A carefully arranged video can be a good starting point for initiating student discussion of important issues in medical practice. In our profession, it is also being observed that using video presentations explains and demonstrates ideas and concept regarding our topics easier, hence beneficial on our part (Harrison, 2003).
Video images can also be made available via a website for students to view in their private study time. Example includes illustrating clinical conditions, showing clinical skills, and stimulating student discussion. When illustrating clinical conditions, it is important that students become familiar with the principle signs and symptoms of common clinical conditions. Movement disorders are more easily seen than described. As for showing clinical skills, the correct procedure for basic clinical skills can be presented on video before the students attempt these procedures for themselves, thus, aiding in retaining the skills before performing (Harrison, 2003).
Combination of video and text makes sense, as it was believed that video is effective for more than simply showing dynamic processes. Video itself is a tool for learning that when properly applied obtains extensive benefits. It’s also a medium for collaboration, and a language unto itself that is of universal appeal (Kareem, 2003).
The American Public Broadcasting System’s (PBS) annual teacher survey on media and technology, the percentages of teachers finding value in multimedia and video content has increased each year since 2007. Result for 2010 shows that 68 percent believe that video content stimulates discussions. 66 percent believe video increases student motivation. 61 percent believe video is preferred by students. 42 percent believe video directly increases student achievement (Greenberg, 2012). Generally, it implies that video usage increases and enhances students’ learning.
Hsin and Cigas (2013) used short videos to enhance student satisfaction and motivation for an online introductory course in computer science/mathematics. They achieved a significantly higher percentage of involved students and their average grades increased. Another method to engage and to motivate students is showing entertainment videos (Steffes & Duverger, 2012). As Steffes and Duverger reported, showing supplementary videos within an entertainment context at the beginning of the class can be used to increase the positive mood of the students. Both previous studies, Bravo et al. (2011) and Steffes and Duverger (2012), emphasize the importance of the proper design of supplementary video content and the methodology of displaying video to students.
The effects of using supplementary videos are increasing student activity. An important issue is establishing a methodology of embedding video clips in multimedia teaching material in order to improve the learning process (Kay, 2012). The selection of appropriate video clips and methodology for their display within the teaching materials represents an important issue for curriculum design, leading to positive learning outcomes (McConville & Lane, 2006). Using appropriate teaching media and methods to organize and present only relevant information may also increase the efficiency of the self-learning process (Ruiji, 2012).
The effectiveness of using podcasts as teaching tools has been investigated to identify how these educational videos could be used to help with exam revision (Hill & Nelson, 2010). Hahn (2012) suggests that videos are effective when used to enhance information literacy courses, using a student survey to measure the effectiveness of video lectures. Hahn’s study showed that the majority of the students found the videos useful in supporting the lectures they had participated in. Students are also comfortable using written materials, since these are often quicker and better designed, but the students who preferred written materials also used the recorded video lectures.
Instructional video is a kind of multimedia that can transmit verbal and non-verbal with the combination of Audio and Visual materials. It develops continuity of thought and offers a reality of experience that stimulates self-activities on the part of the students (Nwoji, 2000). In instructional video, teacher produces an instructional video package which is played on a video player connected to a television monitor which is put on, for the learner to view. At interval he may choose to stop playing and explain certain points or factors or probably wait till the end of the lesson. Students have the opportunity to repeat the lesson over and over again (Orisabiyi, 2007).
1.2 Statement of Problem
The pattern of teaching and learning process today is expected to shift from the traditional method to a more dynamic and flexible one, which is learner-centred. Evidences abound that instructional video can be used to effectively facilitate learning. Report on effective use of instructional video in teaching social studies in junior secondary schools in Lagos state however remains unknown. Noteworthy, the presence of instructional video alone will not stimulate significant changes in learners without a teacher. Teachers are important in the implementation of instructional video in education. Without the teachers, students may not be able to effectively enjoy available potentials inherent in instructional video on their own. Teachers need to actively engage the use of instructional video in teaching and for teachers to effectively do this; they need to have the requisite skill and competencies needed in use of instructional video.
Apparently, little attention has been given to the improvement of teaching and learning of social studies in recent decades. The available evidence from the last few years shows that passive learning based on traditional methods of “chalk and talk” seems to be the most widely used teaching method. The persistent use of this method makes students passive rather than active learners. As a result of advancement and development of modern technology varieties instructional materials can be used to make learning more vivid and effective. This means that students can perform better wherever they are taught with these instructional materials particularly instructional video aids as their comprehension and demonstration are expected to enhance tremendously in teaching-learning process. Unfortunately, most of the social studies teachers neglect the use of instructional video in teaching the subject. Probably, due to class size, population, non-availability of the materials or lack of techniques for using them and Poor teaching methods adopted by teachers at junior secondary school level in Nigeria have been identified as one of the major factors contributing to poor performance of students in social studies. Consequently, growing concerns have been raised over a number of years about the impact of teaching methods on student achievement, and there are criticisms of a lack of knowledge and skills among the junior secondary school and their inability either to apply school knowledge to real life situations. This study, therefore, intended to examine the Impact of Instructional Video on Student Achievement in Junior Secondary Schools of Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Instructional Video on Students Achievement in Junior Secondary School. Specifically, the study aimed to:
1. Effect of instructional video and traditional instructional method on students’ mean achievement scores in social studies.
2. Effect of gender on students’ means achievement scores in social studies when taught using instructional video.
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the problems stated above, the following research questions were raised:
1. What are the mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using instructional video and those taught using traditional instructional method?
2. What are the performance of students taught with the use of instructional video instructional and those taught without instructional video instructional
3. What is the effect of gender on students’ mean achievement scores in social studies when taught using instructional video?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide this study:
H01: There is no significant different in the mean achievement score of students taught social studies using instructional video instructional video and those taught using traditional instructional method.
H02: There is no significant difference between the performance of students taught with the use of instructional video instructional and those taught without instructional video instructional.
H03: There is no significant between the mean achievement scores of the female and male students taught social studies using instructional video.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will invariably be of tremendous importance to students, teachers and researchers in social studies accordingly. The work will enable students to read and understand instructional videos that facilitate teaching learning process, particularly video show. The Study will serve as reference to teachers who wish to find out the impact of instructional videos on students’ academic achievement particularly in junior secondary schools. It will also highlight the appropriate materials of teaching social studies which will bring about students’ interest and active participation in the subject. The work will enable the teachers to understand that the success of any teaching-learning activities is determined by how much the students are able to learn or gain from teaching. This can be achieved through the use appropriate audio-visual aids.
The study will serve as a reference to researchers who wish to embark on further research on impact of instructional videos on students‟ academic achievement. The work will also enable researcher to understand the impact of comprehension, demonstration and co-operation in the use of instructional video in teaching-learning process.
1.7 Scope of Study
This study on the impact of instructional video on students’ achievement in junior secondary schools. The study will cover two selected secondary schools in Education district 1, Lagos State. However, the findings would not be limited, but should be generalized to what obtained in most of the junior secondary schools in the state.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Instructional video: A video or motion pictures prepare to teach culture and social value.
Student Achievement: Is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student has achieved his/her educational goals