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IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY
[icon type=”icon-book”]: Chapter 1 – 5
[icon type=”icon-basket”]: #3, 000
[icon type=”icon-doc-line”]: Ms Word format

This study, IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

2.1.1  THE CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

2.1.2  PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT AND MEASUREMENT

2.1.3  OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

2.1.4  STEPS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

2.1.5  METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

2.1.6  INSTRUMENTS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

2.1.7  ERRORS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

2.1.8  OVERCOMING ERRORS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

2.1.9 LEGAL ASPECT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

2.2     THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.2.1  GOAL THEORY BY LATHAM AND LOCKE

2.3     EMPIRICAL REVIEW

2.4     SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2     AREA OF STUDY

3.3     POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.4     RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

3.6     VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.7     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

3.8     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     SUMMARY

5.2     CONCLUSION

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS

5.4     LIMITATION

5.5     SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The output of every organization depends on how well and how much the performance of the employee is appraised and evaluated. Productivity can therefore be defined as quality or volume of the major product or services that an organization provides. In short, productivity is what comes out of production. Managers of every business organization are charged with the responsibility to motivate their employees to achieve organizational goals. The efficiency and effectiveness of any work place whether the private or the public sector, largely depend on the caliber of the workforce. The availability of competent and effective labor force does not just happen by chance or accident but through an articulated recruitment exercise (Peretomode and Peretomode, 2001) and performance appraisal. The whole essence of the management activities of an organization culminates into the system of performance appraisal adopted in that organization. This, in turn, reflects the extent of the individual contributions and commitment of the employees in different hierarchical levels toward the achievement of organizational objectives. It goes without saying that an effective performance appraisal system can lead an organization to take strides towards success and growth by leaps and bounds. Conversely, an ineffective performance appraisal system can seal the fate of an organization by creating chaos and confusion from top to bottom in the administrative hierarchy. As a consequence the chances of success and growth of that organization are doomed. In every business organization, the performance of the employees is important in achieving organizational goals. The success of every business organization can therefore be attributed to performance appraisal. Performance appraisal is one of the basic tools that make workers to be very effective and active at work. A critical look out on this may bring about the need for motivation, allowances, development, training and good human relationship in an organization.

A generation ago, appraisal systems tended to emphasize employee traits, deficiencies and abilities. With the development of the employee/organization relations modern appraisal philosophy emphasizes on the present performance and future goals. Modern philosophy also stresses on employee participation in mutually set goals with the supervisor. The underlying philosophy behind mutual setting of goals is that people will work harder for goals or objectives that they have participated in setting. The assumption is that people want to satisfy some of their needs through performing work activities that provide them with a supportive environment. They also need to perform meaningful tasks, share the objectives setting, and share the rewards of their efforts and continued personal growth (Dechev, 2010).

Organizations are established to perform certain tasks and use different cadre of staff to achieve their objectives. To maintain standards and anticipated outputs organizations have to keep abreast with both new knowledge and technological advances. This fast growing challenge requires that organizations engage or update their staff so that they can cope with the rate of generation of new changes in these areas. Some of the coping mechanisms applied by organizations are recruitment of trainable staff, reproofing of present staff, in service training in certain disciplines and on the job training including exchange programs. A performance appraisal system is a good instrument that can be used to improve the quality of an organization’s work force performance of which it is considered as an important aspect in human resources management and as part of the control process in administration (Kavussl, 2009). In order for an organization to achieve its objectives, planning of the appraisal process is an important subject who should be undertaken to enable it achieves the objectives like work force development, including improvements, promotions and assignments in managerial positions, persuasion and punishment, salary increase, personnel’s performance feedback and determining their educational needs. Therefore, an appraisal can be considered as an important factor in identifying the people’s talents and capacities and its results can make them aware of advancements, plans and goals. An organization, it self, needs to detect the employees efficiency to improve the manpower’s status, for the purpose of increasing the volume of the production and services and making positive changes in its trend (Kavussi Shal, 2009).

Igbokwe-Ibeto (2011) observed that people do not take their work seriously in many instances because people do not like what they are doing. This nonchalant attitude to work is independent of geo-political zones, rural-urban residence, religious affiliation, sex or age. This opinion if properly examined suggest that in many cases, they see themselves as birds of passage, such notion and feeling is even worsened by the fact that performance appraisal and productivity management is not taken serious in most organizations. A segment of Nigerian scholars such as, Okoro (2003), Oko (2004) and Arhuidese (2006)well tutored in Nigerian history have traced the genesis of the negative attitude to work prevalent among Nigerian to the event of colonial era. They argued that during the struggle and fight against colonialism, many nationalist using various approaches and strategies tended to give the impression that government as an institution and its agencies should be impoverished and vandalized. The public sector for example, was seen as a white man s job and anything done to frustrate its operations is well intended. The notion, they argued have spread into all spheres of work in the present day Nigeria. Some Nigerian scholars such as, Mustafa (2006), Nwachukwu (2008) and Fatile (2010), emphasized the issue of poor performance appraisal and motivation at work as the some of the causes of this national slide. They argued that poor performance and low productivity is a direct consequence of inadequate motivation and performance appraisal. In line with this proposition, Enyinta, (2001) noted that, there is general apathy on the side of the employers of labor to reward a worker who is conscientious and dedicated to his duties. Workers more often than not go on strike resulting to loss of man-hours before they get their due rights. Afam (2003) contributing to the above subject matter, believes that the Nigerian worker has become a pawn in the hands of exploitative capitalist. He went further to observe that workers are subjected to all kinds of ill treatments like reduction in ranks, removal of fringe benefits, pay cuts, late payment of salaries and wages and the prevalent retrenchment with or without benefits. He concluded by saying that a situation where a worker is not adequately rewarded for the cake he has painstakingly toiled to bake, is disheartening and left much to be desired, as it amounts to killing the goose that lays the golden egg.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

For a research work to get underway, some difficulties must be felt in a practical and theoretical situation. In other words, there must be a felt difficulty succeeded by efforts to find solutions to the problem. Efficiency and effectiveness in the Nigerian public sector has been a subject of controversy and debate by all and sundry. Inefficiency, ineffectiveness, and low productivity are all common features of public sector. It is in line with this that, after examining the attitude to work of Nigerians concluded that Nigeria s ambition for rapid industrialization, economic prosperity, social and political stability will singularly and collectively be frustrated if the current poor work attitude of Nigerian public sector is not urgently and positively improved. The above opinion if properly analyzed, shows that improved or positive attitude to work in the Nigerian is an antidote for industrialization and economic stability and development in Nigeria. Performance appraisal as an important human resource (HR) strategy for achieving better employee performance and productivity is hardly taken serious by many organizations and most especially the Nigerian public sector. In fact, public sectors Managers see performance appraisal as a ritual and an academic exercise. This prevailing anomaly in the public sector has provoked a series of studies geared towards ameliorating the ugly situation which scholars have attributed to the familiar challenges of the Nigerian federation. These problems according to Mukoro (2005) citing Fajemirokun, Briggs (2007) Igbokwe-Ibeto (2011), and Tonwe and Oghator (2009) comprises ethnicity, religious strife, corruption, colonial history, governance/leadership style, the military involvement in politics, dishonest performance appraisal and federal character principles. A number of reasons have been identified as being responsible for this ugly situation and a number of solutions have also been suggested, but the problem remained endemic and persistent in the Nigerian public sector. Their performances are still below expectation, their productivity is far below average, efficiency and effectiveness is virtually nil. This study therefore, aims to further interrogate this catalogue of problems by having a look at performance appraisal in the Nigerian public sector so as to determine its effectiveness or otherwise using the of Nigeria brewery as a case study.

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to determine the extent to which performance appraisal can enhance employee performance and productivity. Other specific objectives include:

  1. To examine the extent to which public sector managers utilize performance appraisal strategies to improve employee’s performance and productivity.
  2. To examine whether there is a relationship between performance appraisal and employees productivity in the Nigerian public sector.
  3. To determine the extent to which organizational climate can influence workers behavior towards better performance or otherwise.
  4. To suggest on how to overcome identified problems in the system, thereby proffering strategies for performance appraisal to become more effective and efficient while embarking on performance appraisal excise

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to guide this study:

  1. Do public sector managers use performance appraisal in improving workers performance and productivity?
  2. Is there any relationship between performance appraisal and employee’s performance and productivity in Nigerian public sector?
  3. Is there any correlation between performance appraisal and attitude to work by employees of Nigeria brewery?
  4. Can organizational climate influence workers satisfaction, performance and productivity?

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho: there is no significance relationship between performance appraisal and employee’s performance and productivity in Nigerian public sector

Hi:    there is a significance relationship between performance appraisal and employee’s performance and productivity in Nigerian public sector

Keywords: IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY


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