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IMPLICATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON SOCIO-POLITICAL ACTIVITY

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[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: IMPLICATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON SOCIO-POLITICAL ACTIVITY
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This study, IMPLICATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON SOCIO-POLITICAL ACTIVITY contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: IMPLICATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON SOCIO-POLITICAL ACTIVITY

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

2.1.2  A BRIEF HISTORY OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

2.1.2  CAUSES OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

2.1.3  EFFECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA

2.1.4  SOLUTIONS TO YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

2.1.5  LABOUR MARKET TRENDS FOR GRADUATES IN NIGERIA

2.1.6  SOURCES OF LABOUR DEMAND FOR UNIVERSITY GRADUATES

2.1.7  ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

2.1.8  SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

2.2     THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.3     EMPIRICAL REVIEW

2.4     SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2     AREA OF STUDY

3.3     POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.4     RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

3.6     VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.7     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

3.8     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     SUMMARY

5.2     CONCLUSION

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS

5.4     LIMITATION

5.5     SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Youths in any given society comprise an important social, political and economic force. Not necessarily that they comprise the majority, but rather because most often they comprise the larger portion of the productive population. The dominance of information and communication technology (ICT) in an increasingly globalized world provides the platform for the youths, who are the most active in the use of ICTs to emerge as the pillar that would revolutionize any emerging economy, of which Nigeria is one. Yaswant (1987) underscores the importance of the youth in any given society stating that youths are the carriers of the culture, custodians of national honors and trustees of the freedom of the country. Nair (2009) aptly captures the relevance of youths in the society by stating that they are the treasure of human resources of a nation having a lot of talent dormant in them, and if tapped in the right direction, would bear great fruits to the benefit of their nation. Grant (2010) writes that at a global scale, youth unemployment has become one of the major concerns of governments. This has even been worsened by world economic crisis making it the focus of much research and debate at various global fora. Though growing levels of unemployment has been a global phenomenon, Okoye-Nebo et al (2014: 20) write that “since the 1980s, unemployment has continued to remain one of the most cancerous socio-economic problems inhibiting the progress of Nigeria, as a nation and Sub-Sahara Africa”. According to National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2013) Nigeria’s unemployment rate has been on the increase, standing at 25.9% as at 2013, as compared to 23.12% in 2012 and 23.9% in 2011. It was projected to rise further to 27% by the end of 2014. Awoegbenle and Iwuamadi (2013) write that Nigeria’s youth population of 80 million represents 60% of the total population with a growth rate of 3.72% per annum. National demography suggests that with average annual entrant to the labor force between 2006 and 2013 standing at 2.9 million, the youth population will remain vibrant in the country. Unfortunately, majority of the youths have remained unemployed during the same period. Massive youth unemployment, especially of university graduates in Nigeria implies that the nation is deprived of the services of the millions of educated and professionally trained youth force on the one hand, and the wasting of the human resources of the nation on the other. This has invited the anger of these youths who become frustrated after roaming streets looking for elusive jobs years after graduation. Some of them indulge in various illegal activities; anti-social, anti-political, anti-economic activities, as well as various violent and criminal activities as ways of expressing their distrust of the system in which they have alienated from making positive contributions to economic development through gainful employment.

Unemployment and anti-social activities relates with attendant socioeconomic effects and abound globally but with more adverse effects on developing economies, especially that of Nigeria and Benue state in particular. Reality and research have both shown that socioeconomic development relates to employment and positive social activities (or behaviors) of youth as they are catholically accepted to be the custodian and right holders of employment. In other words, “there is a link among poverty, loss of livelihood, inequality, and youth anti-social behaviors (a.k.a. youth restiveness) as evidenced by the numerous violent protests against the holders of power, and politicians/bureaucrats in the corridors of power in Nigeria and particularly in Benue state. In the last two decade and thereabout, there have been multiplication and proliferation of anti-social cases all over the country and indeed the world, of youth agitations with attendant social costs ranging from lawless and violent killings, brutality, cannibalism, kidnappings and emergent terrorism, etc., and valuable infrastructure as well as public and private properties lost and destroyed. Specifically, in Nigeria, the Niger Delta was prominent in youth anti-social behaviors which took the various administrations within that period by the horn with lots of attendant socioeconomic costs evidenced in countless loss of lives and billions of Naira for over a decade until the President Yaradua’s Amnesty Policy of 2008 provided a way forward. Within this period, sporadic youth agitation in Lagos and coastal areas in the western parts of Nigeria, masterminds of area boys, Alaiyes and Agberos (as were termed) were domesticating and preying on the anti-social and illicit behaviors and activities. Almost simultaneously, the Bakasi boys in the eastern Nigeria held sway over that region with anti-social activities leading to colossal losses in lives, property and millions of Naira. When the amnesty program seemed effective in the Niger Delta region, the quasi anti-social behaviors in the south-east metamorphosed into full-fledged and increased rate of armed robbery attacks, kidnappings as well as unbridled thug actions. In Benue state, the small pockets of youth anti-social practices that evidently commenced in 1998 and there about gradually enlarged. There are Ogogoro (a.k.a. Suswam) high level and uncontrolled consumers, increased level of social sex workers, increased armed robbery, increased kidnapping, increased thug actions, increased militia practices, uncontrolled drug addicts and etc. These groups are already out of the way in terms of any tangible mental reasoning for pro-social behaviors, but quick in adapting to anti-social activities. The Kwande political killing in 2002; Jato-Aka political mayhem of 2003; Asukunya political killing of 2011; and other sporadic political killings of both individuals and groups, property destruction worth billions of naira, were carried out by unemployed youth in Benue state seemed sponsored by high-flying politicians. The major development mill for the youth are the public schools. But in Benue state, the public schools have been sporadically in and out of school due to continuous strike actions in the past ten years of democracy in Nigeria. The present state of Benue youth is highly questionable as unemployment rate is on the increase, and the state seems not to have come up with any effective public plan for youth development (engagement and social inclusiveness). Anti-social activities of youth in Benue state have entered a different phase from its inception. It seems as if there is a link between the leaders of youth anti-social groups and top politicians, or even the government agents (bureaucrats and the police). The anti-social youth groups, some of political extractions abound and are present in every local government headquarters and prominent villages/hamlets in Benue state. In the last general elections, almost all leading politicians in Benue state had at least one anti-social youth group. For example, there were the “Bai boys,” and every prominent politician have these type of youth boys group in their respective camps, and etc. Some were engaged in these actions because of poverty, unemployment, social exclusion and frustration. There are still other anti-social youth groups such as the “Ghana group” in Sankera, the “Aondonengen and Saasaa groups” in Gboko, the “Sparko G group” in Makurdi among other groups spread sporadically in the state. They are very ruthless, tactical and dogged, some even educated but unemployed, and painfully, most of them engage into these illicit acts for nothing more than pastry sums, red wine and spirits. The recent Fulani herdsmen onslaught in Benue state employed some of these youth anti-social groups as mercenaries against their motherland. The aged long Jukum-Tiv showdowns have been executed by the anti-social youth groups of thoseepochs. The Ipav-Ukan, Ukan-Gaav, Shorov-Ukusu, and Mbagen-Eturo clan squabbles of the past in Benue state were all executions of the anti-social tactical youth groups. Over 6 brutal political killings including the killing of a prominent Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) faithful, Chief Atoza Hindan, have already been recorded in Benue state between May 29, 2015 and July 5, 2015.Lastly, at the present, the northern part of Nigeria formerly known as the symbol of peace and tranquility and a cushion for peace settlement, is literally erupted with unrivalled violence in the class of terrorism (Boko Haram). Culminating into lots of bomb blasts, kidnaps and killings, hostage taking of villages and hamlets, with many citizens becoming refugees in their fatherland in northern Nigeria. Today, the illicit and anti-social behavior of youth in Nigeria due to unemployment and poverty is known to metamorphose from traditional or crude physical weapon-free fighting and voice-shouts to a more sophisticated, high-tech and weapon-grade robbery, kidnapping and terrorism with associated sunk costs. The present level of anti-social activities of the youth in Nigeria have taken a global perspective as it has moved almost beyond national issues to international policy concerns. In the last five years, illicit practices from antisocial activities of youth (particularly Boko Haram) in Nigeria due to high youth unemployment and poverty, has made Nigeria to earn an unsought position and naming among the terrorists family of the world. This is a very bad scenario as Nigeria’s international reputation and socioeconomic development further nose dives. The question now remains: can Nigeria evolve an ambidextrous employment and poverty eradication policy that will provide the teaming youth (both schooled – learned, and unschooled – unlearned) employment and poverty eradication projects assign for curbing these youth anti-social activities?

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Benue state is the center of unity connecting all sections of Nigeria and described as a state of unity in diversity. Benue state also is an agrarian economy with abundant natural factors with prolific human capital having a youth literacy rate of 84.70 per cent, about 8.40 per cent above average (76.3) according to NBS statistics of 2010. This is backed up with thousands of youths graduating from 2 public state colleges of education, a state college of Agriculture, a state college of Nursing, a state polytechnic, and a state university among other private higher institutions, and a myriad of public and private secondary schools. These strides ensures production of quantum human capital product development that is capable of managing and controlling socioeconomic development challenges in the state any time. From 1999 up till today, Benue state have collected budgetary capital allocation, foreign capital inflows, internal revenue, and other intervention funding that accrue into several trillions of naira. In presence of these, there is high level of unemployment, increasing anti-social activities by the youths, nose diving socioeconomic development and very low to zero quality of life. The problems is definitely hanging on lack of good and effective leadership and governance to craft and implement policies that will engender employment and socioeconomic development, thereby curbing anti-social activities to a zero tolerance. What policies? This paper sets out to explore the various state of affairs and corresponding policies for probable solution.

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to find the implication and influence of unemployment on the socio political activity in Nigeria, specifically the study intends to

  1. Discover the causes of unemployment in Nigeria
  2. Find out the effects of unemployment on the youth
  3. Investigate the effects of unemployment on the Economic development in Nigeria
  4. Find out the influence of unemployment on socio political activity in Nigeria

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions were formulated to guide the study so as to bring a valid answer:

  1. What are causes of unemployment in Nigeria economy
  2. What are the effects of unemployment on the youth
  3. what effects does unemployment has on the Economic development in Nigeria
  4. Is there any significant influence of unemployment on socio political activity in Nigeria

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho: there is no significant influence of unemployment on socio political activity in Nigeria

Hi: there is significant influence of unemployment on socio political activity in Nigeria

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will expose the government and other policy makers on the insight into the problems of unemployment facing the economy and provide solutions for economic growth and development in Nigeria. Also to other researchers, it will add up to knowledge in relation to the Nigerian economy. It will also bring fulfilment of academic pursuit, thereby serving as a medium for students that would embark on similar research work in the future.

And to the general public, the study will broaden their knowledge about the effects of youth unemployment and would also serve as an aid to providing information for further research.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study is wide. This is because the implication of unemployment on socio political activity is a problem that affects the economy. Therefore, the researcher intends to limit the study of the impact of youth unemployment on Markudi local government area in Benue state, but will generalize the result with what can be obtainable in the Nigerian Economy as a whole.

1.8     DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

However, in the course of carrying out this research work, the researcher can foresee some limitations which include; insufficient financing, insufficient data for the research work and the time required for the project to be concluded.

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

In order to prevent confusion and ambiguity of words used in this research work, the words used can be defined operationally as follows;

Youth: This comprises of young persons between the ages of 18   and 44.

Unemployment: Refers to a socio-economic situation in which persons who are

Actively seeking, willing and able to work have no work.

Nigerian economy: This refers to one of the most developed economies in Africa.

It is a middle income nation with developed financial, communication and

Transportation sectors.

  1. G. A: This refers to the abbreviation of Local Government Area.

Graduates: a person who has successfully completed a course of study or   training,

Especially a person who has been awarded an undergraduate or first academic

Degree.

Labor market: the availability of employment and labor, in terms of

Supply and demand

Keywords: IMPLICATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON SOCIO-POLITICAL ACTIVITY


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