This study, INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT, RESOLUTION ND MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA ORGANIZATION contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords: INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT, RESOLUTION ND MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA ORGANIZATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
1.5 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
1.6 DEFINITION OF THE TERM
2.1 Types of Motivation
2.1.1 Extrinsic Motivation
2.1.2 Intrinsic motivation
2.1.3 Non-material incentives
2.1.4 The Psychology of Tangible Non-Monetary Incentives
2.2 Effects of Motivation on Workers’ Productivity
2.3 Effects of Motivation on Workers’ Performance
2.4 Factors Enhancing Employees’ Motivation
3.0 Theories of Motivation
3.1 Abraham Maslow Theory
3.2 Frederick Winslow Taylor Theory Of Motivation
3.3 Frederick Herzberg Theory Of Motivation
3.4 Incentives As Motivational Tools
3.5 Empowerment And Organizational Performance
The most ill feelings, witch-hunting and intransigence that constitute the pitfall for prompt resolution of conflict are attributable to the poor understanding of the nature of conflicts by all the parties involved. Conflict is an institutionalised aspect of industrial relation because the interest of the employer and the employee are usually diametrically opposed. Employer will always strive to maximize their benefits while the employee will strive to maximize his profit. As each of the parties pursues its interest, conflicts become inevitable. But since the parties need each other for the realization of their goals, such conflicts usually leads to compromise and better cooperation.
Whenever workers suspect or perceive their interest to be in jeopardy, discontent will be expressed in one way or the other. The form of expression of grievance depends on the circumstances of the case. For instance, when a group of workers lack solidarity and organization as is often the case among lower-skilled groups. When workers are however organized, as is often founded among higher-skilled occupations, they are more likely to engage in organized conflict and employ more effective sanctions to make the employer to grant them concessions.
In dealing with organized labour, union leaders are actually assets to employers rather than liabilities as they are often erroneously perceived by politicians and industrial managers. This is because union leaders usually sensitize management to the potential sources of conflict in industries and also gives advise on how to avert such ugly situations when conflict inevitably ensues, union leaders serve as the arrow head for the channelling workers grievances and they also facilitate the process of conflict resolution. Union leaders can only agitate successfully on behalf of workers when there are genuine and widespread grievances. Hence, efforts to suppress industrialconflicts by ill-informed management through the victimization or sacking of union leaders, or the banning of union activities are largely counterproductive. Union leaders do not conjure the grievance upon which they agitate whereas the persistence of widespread discontent will usually produce leaders to organize such discontent whether union leaders exists or not. Leaders who emerge spontaneously to organize crisis are generally more over-zealous and more difficult to negotiate with by employers than democratically elected union leaders: Otobo(1987).
Complaint is a spoken or written dissatisfaction formally presented to or brought to the attention of a supervisor. It is a mere employee or employer dissatisfaction which has not taken the formal grievance settlement route: Peretomode and Peretomode(2001).
In modern day organization, complaints from either employee or employer or their representatives are numerous but can take three dimensions. On the lead are complaints tangible or inanimate object which deal with working conditions, guiding against defective machine or tools on the side of the employees by employer. Another complaint is based on sensory experience and the accompanying subject reaction which are as a result of feelings that can be changed immediately. For instance, complaint on hot or cold requires attention to the window or air condition or complaints by employer on low productivity can be lack of raw materials requires attention to supply raw materials. Lastly, complaints can be associated with hopes and fear in which either party are most likely to raise protest. When demands for product in the market is becoming or likely to be higher, the employer can complain on need for more commitment from workers and similarly, the employees would raise complain on the hope of future increase in pay. On the contrary, sales reduction and economic recession can also generate complaints like low patronage or job insecurity.
WHAT IS GRIEVANCE?
Grievances, employers typically implement a grievance procedure. The grievance When complaints are unattended to in time, it becomes grievance. Grievance in this perspective can be defined as complaints that have been formally presented to management or union representatives. It is thus, a more forma, relatively drastic step in which unresolved complaints are presented in an official document to management representative, a union official or both, through an identified procedure.
A grievance is generally defined as a claim by an employee that he or she is adversely affected by the misinterpretation or misapplication of a written company policy or collectively bargained agreement. To address procedure may also be part of a collectivebargaining agreement.
TYPES OF GRIEVANCE
One person grieves that a management action has violated their rights under the collective agreement. Examples include discipline, demotion, harassment, improper classification or denial of earned overtime. Investigate and help the member with the grievance. If the person refuses to grieve, many contracts let the union grieve on behalf of the local. This defends the contract and protects the rights of other employees. Remember that monetary compensation is not usually awarded in a policy grievance.
A group grievance complains that management action has hurt a group of individuals in the same way. For example, an employer refuses to pay a contractual shift premium. A group grievance shows solidarity and builds power in a work group. If it involves money, make sure to include all members affected and that they are listed on the grievance. You may even wish to include language in the remedy section of the grievance to “make all members affected, whole in every way”.
Policy or Union grievancewith a policy or union grievance, the union complains that a management action violates the agreement. It usually deals with contract interpretation, not an individual complaint.
WHAT IS CONFLICT?
Michael Nicholson defines conflict as an activity which takes place when individuals or groups wish to carry out mutually inconsistent acts concerning their wants, needs or obligations. It may also be defined as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concern. The frequent manifestation of complaints and grievance is a signal of conflicts which can be described as a situation of disagreement within an individual or groups. A conflict is a situation characterized by the inability of those concerned to iron out their differences. It thus starts from complaints to the level one can imagine such as industrial strike: Fajana(2001).
LEVELS OF CONFLICTS
INTRA PERSONAL CONFLICT: It is a conflict that individual experience within himself or herself as a result of incompatible goals. Such goals are often with mutually exclusive outcome. Trying to make decision on the conflict may create one or more other conflicts which includes, Approach; it means the individual is confronted with two or more positive conjunctive situations. For example, two lucrative job offers at the same time
Avoidance; this is a situation in which a person is confronted with two or more negative alternatives. For instance an employee transferred to a rural area in the northern part of Nigeria from Lagos with a demotion.
Approach Avoidance; this involves the situation in which one is confronted with both positive and negative outcome. A job offer that separates one from family and social activities is one of such example.
STAGES OF CONFLICTS
Conflict by its nature are not static they change over time. Conflict manifestation is through stages. The following stages are possible in every conflict life.
- Formation stage: at this stage a complaint emerges and what is taken for granted becomes a serious issue. The obvious antagonistic shifts in attitude and behavioural pattern are the early morning signs of conflict formation which need to be addressed immediately otherwise it will escalate and that is when you talk about the next stage.
- Escalation stage: This is characterized by side taking, communication stage, perception becomes distorted, parties begin to commit resources to defend their position and images are made with inflammatory statements regarding these positions.
- Crisis stage: At this stage parties involved in the conflict begin to come out with overt position on opposition to the other party and a counter reaction is also being seen. At this level disorderliness has prevail and everyone involved is ready to down tool.
- De-escalation stage: At this stage the third party has intervened with sanctions.
- Improvement stage: At this stage the need for dialogue and negotiation is recognized and both parties towards attaining relative peace and harmony.
- Transformation stage: conflict has been resolved here and reconciliation has occurred. This stage is difficult to attain in any conflict situation, it is very difficult for both parties to be transformed or modified especially when lives and properties have been destroyed.
Having concluded that crisis arises whenever interest collide or because of vested interest and because we have individuals, groups and department that relates, conflict is always present in organizations. It is at times overt in the structure of organization, roles, attitude and stereotypes or covert with its source on perceived or real divergence of interests; MORGAN(1986).
Organizational/ industrial conflict is thus inevitable like conflict in every human society in the world of work. In the words of Marshall (1996), industrial conflicts are all expressions of dissatisfaction within the employment relationship, especially those pertaining to the employment contract and thee effort bargain.
The Indians industrial dispute act (1954) was more comprehensive in defining industrial conflict as “any dispute or differences between employers and employers, or between employers and employees or between employer and employees, which is connected with the employment or non-employment or to the terms of employment or with the conditions of work of any person”. One major pitfall of the definition is the inclusion of non-employment issues which might be difficult to enforce.
Kornhanser, Dublin and Ross (1954), defined industrial conflict as the total range of behaviour and attitudes that express opposition and divergent orientations between individual owners and managers on the other hand, and working people and their organizations or the other. The definition is restrictive to what is within the organization to be the prime causal of individual conflict.
Fajana (2001) opine that industrial conflict is the inability if these parties (either between employer and employees within their groups) to reach agreement on any issue connected with the object of employee-employers interaction, whether or not this inability result in strikes or lockout or other forms of protestations. This definition is more germane to our contemporary world as it looked beyond industrial strike as the manifestation of industrial conflict but from the presence of frequent complaint and grievance involving individuals and groups in the organization.
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT ON INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT
- This approach assumed that all conflict was bad and negative. It is considered dysfunctional primarily because of the adverse effect it could have on organizational productivity. Although the view can be true if individual and groups would not share important information.
Concentrationon the job. Moreover, conflict was felt to affect the morale of Too much of such activities can distract managers from their work and reduce their employees and over a long period of time, it could stress frustration and anxiety which will affect the organization.
Because of all these, some managers have associated industrial conflict with violence, dysfunctional and irrational move that should not be encouraged but suppressed at all cost. Towards this view managers that have ensured conflict free organizations are being praised and promoted ahead of others in a conflict ridden situation.
- HUMAN RELATIONS VIEW (BEHAVIOURIST VIEW)
The human relations view is based on the fact that conflict is a natural occurrence in all groups and organizations. Since conflict was inevitable, the school was of the stand that conflict should be welcome and accepted as part of group and organization but with a timely recognition and management. This view believes that conflict cannot be eliminated and there are times when it even benefits a group or organization.
- THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW
This is the contemporary view of conflict, which encourage conflict on the ground that harmonious, peaceful, tranquillity and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic and non responsive to needs for change and innovation. That is conflict is not only a positive force in a group, but necessary for a group to perform effectively. The major contribution of the interactionist approach is for managers and other concerns to know how to encourage conflict and maintain an ongoing minimum level of it enough to keep the group viable, self-critical and creative.
ADVANTAGES OF CONFLICT:
While the term conflict generally is associated with negative encounters, conflict itself is neither inherently good nor inherently bad. In fact, engaging in conflict can have positive effects on relationships and organizations.
Consider these benefits:
- Conflict fosters an awareness that problems exist.
- Discussing conflicting views can lead to better solutions.
- Managing conflict is quicker and more efficient than letting conflicts fester.
- Challenging old assumptions can lead to changes in outdated practices and processes.
- Conflict requires creativity to find the best outcomes.
- Conflict raises awareness of what is important to individuals.
- Managing conflicts appropriately helps build self-esteem.
- Managing conflicts well is a sign of maturity.
- Conflicts are challenging.
- Conflicts are exciting.
- Conflicts encourage people to grow.
- Conflicts create opportunity.
- Divert time and energy from the main issues: Conflict tends to divert the main issue of the objective of the organization. A struggle between groups of employees shifts the objective form the main focus.
- Delay decisions: Conflict arises in groups because of the scarcity of freedom, position, and resources. People who value independence then to resist the need for interference and, to some extent, conformity within a group. It makes the group delayed during decision making.
- Create deadlocks: The parties begin to focus in on differences of opinion and interests, sharpening perceived conflict, which creates deadlock while making decisions and conflict resolution.
- Derive Unaggressive committee members to the sidelines: During conflict very much active members participate in negotiation, which Drive unaggressive committee members to the sidelines making themselves non participatory members of that group.
- Interfere with listening: The outward display of conflict occurs when the opposing parties plan and follow through with acts to frustrate one another. In this scenario the avoid listening to each other tries to focus on individual problems.
- Obstruct exploration of more alternatives: A conflict proceeds through the stages, resolution becomes more difficult. People become more licked into their positions and more convinced that the conflict must be a win or lose situation. That makes a situation of obstructing exploration or more alternatives.
Keywords: INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT, RESOLUTION ND MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA ORGANIZATION
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