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THE INFLUENCE OF HOUSEHOLD VIOLENCE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: THE INFLUENCE OF HOUSEHOLD VIOLENCE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
[icon type=”icon-book”]: Chapter 1 – 5
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Keywords: THE INFLUENCE OF HOUSEHOLD VIOLENCE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS


RESEARCH BODY

ABSTRACT

Academic achievement of students is one of the core reasons for studying and one of the core reasons for the establishment of educational goals and objectives. The purpose of this study was tobring to forethe influence of household violence on psychosocial adjustment of secondary school students

The study employed a descriptive survey. The two instruments used for this study were all adopted scales, the instruments were used in this research to House violence scale and Psychosocial adjustment scale among students; Using simple random sampling technique, two hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires were distributed to students from ten secondary school in Ijebu North Local Government. The data collected were thus analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and multiple regression analysis at the 0.05 level of significance.

The findings of the study revealed there is a significant effect of household violence on psychosocial adjustment of secondary school students in Ijebu North local government and also there is a significant difference of household violence on psychosocial adjustment of male and female students in Ijebu North Local Government.

The study therefore recommended that families should be mindful of the coexistence that internal squables do affect their children in school, measures should be taken by various communities and governments to forestall the violent behaviour amongst our youth e.g. political thugery, religious extremism and land resources conflicts and the school environment should be child friendly, so that children can perform in an atmosphere of peace and tranquility. Bullies should be identified to either be flusted out or counselled where possible. Schools should be located outside congested places to forestall the mixing of children with undesirable behaviours.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of Problem

1.3 Research Question

1.4Research Hypotheses                                                                   

1.5 Purpose of the Study

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Theoretical Review

2.2.1 Defining “Exposure to Household Violence”

2.2.1.1 Effects of Exposure to Household Violence

2.2.2 Contextual Justification for Household Violence

2.2.3 Physical violence and adjustment problems

2.2.4 Psychological violence and adjustment problems

2.2.5 Gender Differences and household violence

2.2.6 Factors Contributing to Household Violence

2.2.7 The influence of household Violence on Society

2.3 Empirical review

2.3.1 Household Violence and Students

2.3.2 Prevalence of Violence

2.3.3 Psychosocial Adjustment  and Students

2.3.4 Household Violence Exposure and Adverse Psychosocial Adjustment

2.3.5 The Health Status of Students Exposed to Violence

2.3.5 Negative Health Behaviours of Household Violence

2.3.6 Problems Associated with Household Violence

2.4 Appraisal of Literature

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                       

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Population

3.3 Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.4 Research Instrument

3.5 Validity of Research Instrument

3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument

3.7 Procedure for Data Collection

3.8 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis

4.3 Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND

                                                            RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1  Introduction

5.2 Discussion of Findings

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations

REFERENCES                                                                                                                  

APPENDIX  1                                                                                                                    

APPENDIX 11                                                                                                                   

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Psychosocial adjustment can be expressed as children’s struggle to get along or survive in their social and physical environment (Lazarus, 2006). It is a functional term encapsulating both a state of being and signifying a process of change in response to circumstances (Rhodes, 2000). Psychosocial adjustment among students can evolve around so many factor in which household violence is part of. Student in different stages of their lives experiences psychological and social stress  which can  induce  a  range  of  physical  illness  associated  with the  development  and  progression  of  major  disease  risk  (Brown & Harris, 2008). Series of adjustment experienced by adolescent may include  the  psychological  effects  of  the  aftermath  of  a  violence,  divorce,  death  of  a  loved  one. All of these  perceived  adjustment   events  generate  different individual responses within a specific context. This indicates the influence of an  individual’s  cognitive  style,  sensitivity  and  susceptibility  to  adjustment.  Onyskiw  and  Hayduk  (2001),  states  that  household violence  has an  adverse effect on  a  child’s  adjustment.  In  their  review  of  studies  related  to  juvenile  delinquency,  they  found  that  family  quality,  harmony,  or  climate  have  a  stronger  relationship  with  juvenile  delinquency  than  father  absence  per se. Related to this, they further observed  that discord  and conflict  in the two-parent home  can  be  more  detrimental  to  the  child  than  father  absence  in a one-parent home. When  household violence occur  regularly, it  may  have  adverse  effects  on  the psycho-social adjustment of the children who are the products of such homes.

Household violence is a traumatic episode which is influenced by complex social, cultural, and psychological factors. It is often referred to as the violence between husband and wife or non-married partners. The incidence and effects of household violence have become a topic of social and scientific interest in recent decades. Household violence occurs in all countries and all cultures and is not restricted to an economic class (Osofsky, 2005). The World Health Organization surveyed women in ten countries and found that 15–71% of women had experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, with most estimates ranging between 29% and 62% (Garcia-Moreno, Jansen, Ellsberg, Heise, & Watts, 2006).  Children have often been described as the ‘forgotten’ victims of household violence (Elbow, 2002). Research suggests that exposure to household violence can place children at high risk of developing a range of adverse developmental outcomes, such as compromised behavioural, emotional, social, cognitive and physical health outcomes (Kernic, Wolf, Holt, McKnight, Huebner, & Rivara, 2003; Wolfe, Crooks, Lee, McIntyre-Smith, & Jaffe, 2003). Exposure to household violence does not affect all children in the same way. Kitzmann, Gaylord, Holt, and Kenny’s (2003) meta-analytic study found across 118 studies that, on average, 37% of children exposed to household violence demonstrated outcomes the same as or better than those of non-exposed children. Given that not all children develop adverse outcomes, it is important to identify factors that contribute to children’s ability to cope, as well as factors that increase their risk of adverse outcomes. To date, a number of factors that moderate the effects of childhood exposure to household violence have been examined; for example, the child’s age, parental factors, and dual exposure to both household violence and child abuse (Kernic., Wolf, Holt, McKnight, Huebner, & Rivara, 2003; Wolfe, Crooks, Lee, McIntyre-Smith, & Jaffe, 2003). However, one potential factor that has had little attention in the literature is the psychosocial adjustment of students exposed to household violence.

Children exposed to household violence are likely to experience negative outcomes in their school adaptation and academic success. Exposure to violence leads to disturbance in cognitive functioning and emotional difficulties such as depression and anxiety. Household violence affects children education by having cognitive effects, social effects, emotional effects, and behavioural effects. These combine to affects the child academic success, concentration, attention and memory. Language skills under children’s school adjustment that can dispute children’s school adaptation and academic competences (Lawal, Ishaq 2010). Exposure to violence affect children view of the world and themselves, their idea about the meaning and purpose of life, their expectation for future happiness and their moral development.

This cycle of psychological maltreatment involves issues of power and control which forces the victim to become dependent on the abusive partner for  information, social and financial resources.   A study by Adejuyigbe & Johnson (2010) reveled that household violence increase the likelihood of violence towards children and even without such violence (towards the children but between parents) has serious effects on children, parents are models and children will always learn whatever behaviour the parents manifest. The study further confirmed that children who experience family violence are not as psychologically healthy in their behaviour as children who do not.

The effect of household violence in the society are numerous, which ranges from loss of lives and properties, the displacement of people from increasing tensions inter-community relations, development of culture violence and so on. Violence in the society mostly affects the weaker ones and in most cases it is the women and children who suffer most. Elijah (2008) confirmed that exposure to events that are so extreme or serve as threatening, that they demand extra ordinary efforts, which are always not adequate in many individuals. In many cases, such developments leads to death of the abused individual. The phenomena produces general aggressive behaviour in the society, the incidence of one form of violence in the society lead to another form, many children who are physically abused in the society have the greater tendency of being involved into violent crimes during adulthood and in later life. Children who grew up in a family or society where there is violence, often becomes violent themselves and in a bid to curtail their aggressive behaviour by parents, school authorities and societal members become frustrated and may either leave home or drop out of school.

The incidence of household violence in Nigeria have serious effect on both the families that fall victims and the nation as a whole. The affected families are pitched in a situation where developments becomes difficult. They are bedeviled with the following gynecological problems, chronic pelvic pains, permanent disabilities, unwanted pregnancies, unprotected sex, anxiety, low self-esteem, sexual dysfunctions and suicide (WHO, 1996). Children’s with such situations may also have academic problems. They are likely to use violence at school, and later in the community. They are also likely to become drug abusers, as well as react violently in their relationships later in lite (Akpan, 2005). On a general note women who are subjected to violence feels negative emotional reactions ranging from fear, shock, panic, and negative self image, which may consequently affect their dignity as human beings and academic performance.

On the effects of home violence on students can be traced to school, it is apparent that the school is a mirror of community and a social institution that transmit the culture of the society from one generation to another to improve the culture by producing generation of people capable of making meaningful contributions to the development of the society. The school helps the child apart from academic life of the child, also helps  to develop the desires moral values, which are necessary for his acceptance and survival in the society. The school provides the child with skills necessary for the survival e.g. reading, writing and simple arithmetic, the school also help to develop child social and civic consciousness.

In line with the identified functions of the home to the society, violence in  the home have significant effects on the academic lives of secondary home students, in fact home is the central agent of any academic lives, the effect of violence in the home directly or indirectly tends to compound or worsen their situations and dispositions to educational achievements. Kolawole & Maureen (2009) in their study found that growing up in household violent environment results in jealousy and poverty. They went further to state that household violated children are psychologically traumatized in class and they live in fear, fear perform poorly in their academics, they lack the required moral supports in their educational pursuits, their education is inhibited as a result of their parental financial squables and they also suffer from inferiority complex and low self-esteem.

Violence in the home inhibits adolescents from attaining their dreams and aspirations especially as it relate to psychosocial adjustment. Consequently, most of the students leave their home without sound moral behaviour. Peer group influence have significant impacts on student behaviour particularly with regards to drugs, alcohol, rape, sexual harassment, psychosocial adjustment and lost of interest in learning. A safe environment is a prerequisite for academic excellence. UNICEF (2009), asserted that violence is more likely to compromise learning because it increases fear, anxiety and absenteeism as well as dropping out from home.

It is generally agreed that children rearing practices and the relationship between parents and their children are important aspects of the socialization of the children. Thus if these noble jobs are poorly managed, the children will tends to deviate from the path of good conduct and become indiscipline. Family conditions can contribute to the behavioural problems in children. For instance, quarrel some homes, disorderly and drunken homes certainly do not send good examples, and thus, children from such homes feel disturbed, use attention seeking behaviours like noise making, irregular attendance, poor performance and over-reacting to the teachers constructive criticisms (Ndagi, 2000). A child’s behaviour is often a reflection of his home training and emulation of his parents and his older siblings.  These include poor physical home conditions, poor parent-child relationship characterized by hostility, lack of attention and under involvement on the child’s welfare, overly harsh and authoritarian methods of discipline and high degree of family conflict and disorganization. Also wife and child battering have a multiplier effect on the cycle of violence in the society. Children living in violence homes are themselves more likely to become agents of violence as an instrument of inter group relations. To buttress, this Mohammad (2006)` opined that if a child is always been punished through infliction of pain of every minor offence, such a child soon become resistant even to dangerous buttering and gladly participate in street fight. Parents serves as models whose behaviour children imitate. If the parent is always demonstrating aggressive or violent behaviour either directly towards the children or stand as a witness, consciously or unconsciously the child learns the act of being aggressive or violent. Family violence result in physical injuries and death, psychological impacts and detrimental to functioning as well as great cost  related health care, criminal injustice and decreased productivity when it is chronic, causes serious injury and is accompanied by other harmful and dysfunctional relationship characteristics.

Students seems to constitute the greater percentage of recipients of the adverse effect of household violence. A study conducted by the office of the Juvenile Justice of Delinquency prevention in Geneva Switzerland, found that 70% of adolescents that live in families with parental conflicts reported violent delinquency, compared to 40% of adolescents from household without this conflicts (Carter, 2004) Secondary home adolescents are saddled with the vigors of acquiring an education, which is multi-dimensional in nature comprising of knowledge base, society base, subject based, teacher and learner oriented and of course extra-curricula based. This implies the challenges of dealing with acquisition of knowledge and integration in the midst of the traumatic period of adolescence. It is against the foregoing discussion that this study set to investigate the influence of home violence on psychosocial adjustment of secondary school students.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The psychosocial adjustment of students is of a big concern to the society. All problems leading to the adjustment of behaviour of the students can be traceable to family background problem. Household conflicts come in different forms like spouse  battering,  spousal  abuse,  sexual  abuse, marital  irresponsibility,  incest,  rape,  subtle  struggle for  control  between  the  couple  and  other  abusive behaviours.  There is concern about the rising rate  of unresolved  household conflicts,  which  often  lead  to children instability at every area,  further  leading  to  academic failure. Thus,  unresolved  household  conflicts oftentimes lead to failed homes. Household conflicts are  often  caused  by  forced  marriage, incompatibility, communication  gap, interference by in-laws,  finances, infidelity,  sex  of  children,  lack  of appreciation  etc which as result hamper the lives of their children.

Therefore, the question this study is out to answer is: the influence of home violence on psychosocial adjustment of secondary school students.

1.3 Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant effect of household violence on psychosocial adjustment of secondary school students in Ijebu North Local Government.
  2. There is no significant difference of household violence on psychosocial adjustment of male and female students in Ijebu North Local Government.

1.4     Purpose of study

This study set to bring to fore the influence of home violence on psychosocial adjustment of secondary school students Area of Ogun state.

1.5     Significance of the study

No doubt this study is significant as it findings will assist in understanding the behavioral patterns/change  of students who are being affected as result of home violence caused by their parent, society, environment at large.

This study would be of help to identify the problem of this students and know how to help in assisting them to improve their lives better rather than being affected by their family background. The reason why so many marriages fail is as a result of what the experience the spouse(s) had while they were small. Household violence has more harm than good to a reasonable number of people and that’s is the essence to which this study is been established. The study will be useful for teachers who are directly involved with the Students and are aware of the influence of household violence on students’ psychosocial adjustment of students and as the same time help them out.

It is also believed that this study is able to fill a gap in the growing body of knowledge on  the effect of household violence on psychosocial adjustment of students  in  Ogun state and Nigeria as a nation.  Besides  adding  to  the  emerging literature  on household violence on psychosocial adjustment of students,  the  study  will aim  to  be  of  significant  use  in gathering  new  and  valuable  data  from  the  abused  student’s  perspective.  Current practises  in  the  country  mean  that  information  and records  regarding  house violence are non-integrated and disconnected from one another. The study would also be of benefits to policy makers who are directly involve in formulating policies will create a chance to increase the efficiency of counselling as this can be a way of the problem caused by household violence and it will also help educational psychologist in the areas of researching and developing theories and techniques in dealing with maladjusted behaviors’ in students

1.6     Operational Definition of terms

Violence: The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself another person, or against a group or community that either result in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation .

Household Violence: It  is  often  referred  to  as  the  violence  between husband and  wife  or  non-married  partners or even between parents and children.

Household: It includes all person who occupy a housing unit or those who dwell  under the same roof and made-up a family.

Psychosocial: This involves the combination of psychological and social behaviour of a man. It is the study that examines the relationship between a person’s fears and how he relates to others in a social setting.

Adjustment: this is the act/process of changing something or the act of adjust/adapting to a particular condition, position, or purpose.

Students: someone who engage in academic pursuit with expectation of a acquiring a certain level of educational standard at a particular institution.

Psychosocial Adjustment: This is the change that occur in a man psychologically/socially as a results of the happenings and events around him.

Keywords: THE INFLUENCE OF HOUSEHOLD VIOLENCE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS



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