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This study, INSTITUTIONAL EMPOWERMENT STRATEGIES AND EMPLOYEE JOB PERFORMANCE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.




The study investigated the relationship between institutional empowerment strategies and employees job performance at the University of Lagos. It specifically aimed at finding out the relationship among incentives, working conditions, social interaction, job attitude and employees job performance at the University of Lagos. The study used four research questions and four hypotheses. The research design used the descriptive survey research design. The population of this study comprised all 3,200 academic staff at the University of Lagos (Human Resource Department, 2018) while the participants of the study comprised 300 employees at the University of Lagos who were selected using the simple random sampling technique. A self-constructed questionnaire was used to collect the data needed to test the formulated hypotheses. The data collected from the participants was used to test the stated hypotheses using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistical technique. The study found that there was a significant relationship among incentives, working conditions, social interaction, job attitude and employees job performance at the University of Lagos.  The study recommended among other things that school management should constantly use motivational strategies to enhance job performance of employees, the employees should be well compensated by the appropriate authorities, the government should provide more incentives for dedicated employees in order to encourage others to improve on their job performance.



Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study                                                                                                

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                

1.3 Purpose of the Study                                                                                                       

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                                           7

1.5 Research Hypotheses                                                                                                       

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study                                                                              

1.7 Significance of the Study                                                                                                            

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                      

Chapter Two: Literature Review               

2.1 Preamble                                                                                                                          

2.2 Theoretical Framework                                                                                                    

2.3 Empirical Review of Literature                                                                                       

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

3.1 Preamble                                                                                                                          

3.2 Research design                                                                                                                44

3.3 Population of Study                                                                                                         

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                                   

3.5 Research Instrument and Validation                                                                               

3.6 Method of Data Analysis                                                                                                


Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Presentation of Results

4.1 Preamble                                                                                                                          

4.2 Presentation of Results                                                                                                     48

4.3 Discussion of Findings                                                                                                     53

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary                                                                                                                           56

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                                        57

5.3 Recommendation                                                                                                              57

Bibliography                                                                                                                           59

Appendix                                                                                                                                59




1.1 Background to the Study

The contemporary Nigerian society is driven by many forces which impact on the various developments and advancements attained by the nation. Education is one of such forces which the government recognizes as the instrument for effecting national development relevant to the needs of the individual and those of the society and which must also be in consonance with the realities of our environment and the modern world. Education is the means by which generations of man introduce the younger ones into the ethnics, morals, culture, economy, politics, religion, technology and the vocations, as well as the leisure of the society (Onifade, 2009). It is the avenue through which the society integrates its youths into its own world and gets the younger generation to adopt its view. As noted by Ajayi (2006) the level and type of education of a people determine the level of its civilization, its survival, its development, its status and the quality of life.


The formal education in Nigeria recognizes four levels of education – the early childhood/pre-primary (the crèche, the nursery and the kindergarten), primary secondary and higher education levels. While the pre-primary serves as a link between the home and the school, the six-year primary education is regarded as the foundation of all other levels of education and a pillar upon which the other levels of education rest on. The secondary education occupies a strategic position in the nations educational system; serving as a link between the primary and higher education. Higher education is the type of education given after secondary education in universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, and monotechnics. It broadly has three major components – university education, teacher education and technology education. Higher education plays a significant role in national development through training of relevant high and middle-level manpower (Onifade).


The secondary school component of education, as highlighted in the National Policy on Education (NPE), (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) is a six-year programme and the link between the primary and higher education. It is expected to provide both 3-year junior secondary and the 3-year senior secondary education. As part of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) which was launched on 30th September, 1999 at Sokoto. Adesina (2006) stated that the secondary school was expected to prepare the individual for useful living within the society, and for higher education. The important strategic position of higher education in the nation’s educational system calls for a critical examination of its administration in present day Nigeria. Over the years, higher education has been faced with some serious problems which undermine the plans and policy statements of government with regards to the achievement of the broad goals and objectives of this level of education.  Within the broad spectrum of the nation’s educational system, the problem still persists till date with different dimensions and as a result of the socio-economic and political dynamics of the nation. No matter how good an education policy is, the successful implementation depends on the employment of the right type of teachers to teach and impart the necessary skills. The strategic role of the teacher is much more pronounced in today’s Nigerian university system where there are no close substitutes for this role in the form of teaching gadgets with programmed instruction as compared with advanced countries.


Though the Federal Government through the NPE (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) acknowledged that no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers and emphasized her commitment towards appointment of academically and professionally qualified persons as teachers, the quality of teachers in present day institutions leaves much to be desired. Apart from the fact that the number of teachers are grossly inadequate, over 40% of them have been found as unfit for the job (Fibainmine, 2007; Olugbile, 2009).


No doubt these inadequacies in the higher institutions impact on the administration of schools. The ill effects of this state of affairs are inadequate use of teaching materials, non-use of continuous assessment, over-population of classes, indiscipline, poor performance of students in examinations and lack of quality assurance (Osokoya, 2006).


An important factor in the administration of institutions is availability of functional facilities. The Federal Government in the NPE, Stresses that the government will take various measures to ensure adequate provision of facilities. Today, however, the situation of facilities in terms of buildings, and infrastructures in the schools has deteriorated badly over the last fifteen years especially when schools’ population is on the increase but without matching facilities to cope with the increase and diversified students’ interests. Many schools operate with fewer classrooms than needed; most are overcrowded; some operate under trees for their teaching-learning process; most do not have laboratories for science subjects, workshop for technical subject and in some schools, teachers and students are subjects to undue hardship as a result of poor sitting arrangement emanating from lack of furniture (Onifade, 2009).


Education is an expensive social service which requires adequate financial provision for successful implementation of programmes. Various provisions for secondary education as well as their administration have brought with them the challenge of adequate funding. Though various governments emphasized huge financial outlays on education (Belo-Osagie, 2009), the present level of funding is grossly inadequate for higher education to achieve stated aims/goals; especially considering the current enrolment. For the public institutions, funding must cover staff emoluments, writing and instructional materials, furniture, blocks of classrooms, laboratories, sports facilities, workshops and sport services among others (Onifade, 2009).


Provision of educational and administrative support services in tertiary institutions has been a major problem over the years. The challenges have been in the provision of resource centres, libraries, audio visual aids for teaching/learning, in service education for teachers, career officers and counselors, school health services, information and communication technology (ICT), games and sport. These services are meant to facilitate the attainment of policy goals and the promotion of effective administration in the schools (Olaniyonu, Adekoya & Gbenu, 2003; Olugbile, 2009).


Fafunwa (as cited in Ibikunle, 2006) lamented and commented on the state of education in Nigeria, that teachers at all levels were not adequately motivated. This problem arises from the pre-independence era, when teachers were presumed to be all knowing, influential and well respected. In this regard, the problem of empowering employees was not well pronounced, the strategy required for empowering employees was discovered to be lacking especially from institutional managers, as leaders; until very recently when it was recognized by all stakeholders including the students that employees’ empowerment is a sine-qua-non to improved social, political, cultural and most importantly economic development of any nation (Ibikunle, 2006). 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Employees exhibit negative attitudes towards their job due to the fact that they are not well empowered by the management of the institution. Some employees are not satisfied with the job due to the leadership style of some management staff cum bad working condition as a result of non-availability of conductive rest room, office space, adequate teaching/learning facilities, classrooms, students’ population explosion, poor salaries, lack of in service training, workshops, seminars, to mention a few. There is no doubt that employees’ empowerment is central to any organization’s life. In fact, it is said to help maintain some state of equilibrium in an organization as well as effective and efficient attainment of the organizational goals and objectives.


Ekundayo (2010) noted that teachers are the centre-piece of any educational system as no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Ekundayo also added that teachers greatly influence the quality of educational output and as such, when they are not well empowered to do their job, their commitment to the job becomes lowered and the objectives of the institution remain unattained. This is where knowledge in organizational psychology becomes pertinent to effective management of employees by school managers. School managers have to be trained specially on how to meet the psychological needs of employees and how to monitor and discipline them. Adeyemi and Oyetade (2011) have it that motivation determines the level of activation, dedication, intensity, consistency and commitment with which employees carry out their assignment as well as the direction in which the assignment will go eventually.


Employees need to be reassured that they are relevant to the school and that the school management is appreciative of their input, which of course would facilitate job retention. Institution managers need to make efforts to forestall irritability, depression and boredom on the part of employees as this will most likely spill over to their students on whom frustration will be vent. It would do the school system a great deal to annually or otherwise carryout assessments of employees’ needs, feelings and opinions so as to acquire the knowledge to manage them. A happy employee will definitely have happy students and likely produce the required results that would do the school proud.

The research assumes that there is no sincere effort to empower the teaching staff in tertiary institutions. The research study therefore set out to investigate institutional empowerment strategies and employees job performance at the University of Lagos.


1.3 Aims/Objectives of the Study

The general purpose of this research work was to examine the institutional empowerment strategies and employee job performance at the University of Lagos.

Specifically, this study sought to:

  1. ascertain the relationship between incentive and employee job performance.
  2. investigate the relationship between working conditions and employee job performance.
  • examine the relationship between social interaction and employee job performance.
  1. ascertain the relationship between job attitudes and employee job performance.


1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the relationship between incentive and job performance?
  2. How does working condition relates to employee job performance?
  • What is the relationship between social interaction and employee job performance?
  1. What is the relationship between job attitude and employee job performance?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were tested for the purpose of this study:

  1. Incentives does not significantly relate to employee job performance.
  2. There is no significant relationship between working condition and employee job performance.
  • There is no significant relationship between social interaction and employee job performance.
  1. There is no significant relationship between job attitude and employee job performance.


1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The focus of the study is mainly on empowerment strategies and employee job performance at the University of Lagos. The variables considered in this study are; incentives, working conditions, social interaction and job attitude. The study is delimited to the academic staff (teachers) at the University of Lagos.


1.7 Significance of the Study

The study will be of great importance to the government, school managers, stakeholders and researchers.

The government will understand the important role played by different empowerment strategies available in institutions so as to improve the job performance of employees. The government will therefore have a basis to encourage institutional managers to adequately empower their employees. Educational Planners and policy makers through empirical information provided by this study will be able to work out new motivational strategies if need be towards improving the performance of employees in institutions of learning.

The findings of this study will make institutional managers to be more effective in motivating employees for an improved job performance. The result of this study will enlighten all stakeholders in the education system on factors responsible for employees’ poor performance as well as provide information on what can be done to improve the performance of employees which will help improve the academic achievement of the students.


Finally, the result of this study would encourage other researchers to carry out further study by expanding the scope of the search to include other variables and areas not covered by this study.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms were operationally defined.

Attitude: This implies employees’ reactions to the job.

Empowerment: In this study refers to motivation of employees at the work place.

Empowerment Strategies: This implies a plan of actions that is capable of improving emotional and mental level or zeal in employees towards their job performance. This also means the act of motivating employees to effectively discharge their duties at work.

Incentive: It means something that make employees’ want to work harder. This could be inform of allowances, bonus, recognition and award among others.

Job Performance: This refers to the discharge of the duties and responsibilities of an employee in the school system.

Working condition: It refers to the school environment and all existing circumstances affecting employees. It covers areas such as space, temperature, lighting, ventilation, humidity, laboratories, teaching facilities, amenities, safety, and level of noise, stress and welfare.









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