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It is now widely recognized that peaceful settlement of dispute within the framework of the united nations charter requires an intergrated and coordinated approach, combining more than one category of strategies of dispute settlement. A welcome development, in this regard, is the increasing resources to the international court of justice parallel to the methods of dispute resolution, there by emphasizing the role of the court in the UN system for matainance of international peace and security and peaceful settlement of dispute1?. The ICJ is no longer seen sold as the last resort in the resolution of the dispute and states may have resources to the court in appeal and that such resource may complement the work of the security council and the general assemble as well as bilateral negotiations. Indeed, one of the most common instrument used by the international law. Has always considered its fundamental purpose to be the maintenance peace2. Although ethical preoccupations stimulated its development and inform it’s growth, international law has historically been regarded by the international community primary as a means to ensure the establishment and preservation of world peace and security.
Basically, the techniques of conflict management fall into two categories: Diplomatic procedures and adjudication3 the former involves an attempt to resolves an attempts to resolves differences either by the contending parties themselves or with the aid of other entities by the use of the discussion and the fact finding method. Adjudication procedure involve the determination by disinterested third party of the legal and factual issue involved either by arbitration or by the decision of judicial organs.
Thus one of the cardinal purpose and principle of present international relations is to maintain international peace and security. Then too, take effective collective measure for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace and for the suppression of facts of aggression or other branch each of the peace.
And to bring about peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international dispute or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace4 to this effect, the international court of justice play a crucial role.
Therefore like every other court, the international court of justice work with the available facts tabled before it. Submitted by state(regions of the world and different legal system, covering a wide range of matters) is a positive reflection of the court’s general jurisdiction open to all the confidence and recognition the court enjoys as the organizational principal judical organs5 the practical example of this was demonstrated in the Bakassi Peninsula dispute settlement. The court in adjudicating the case began by reciting the history of the proceeding and submission of the parties although, settlement of the dispute was controversial. To sum analysis it was politically judged not with standing the fact must presented to her. However the judgment of the court over made use of the facts presented to her. However, the of the judgment of the court over the Bakassi Peninsula is not to be final, as the security council still has all the right to look into the judgment of the ICJ and draw the final conclusion. As noted by Adabeyo Adeolu.
“Bakassi belongs to Nigeria and the United Nations security council must look into the matter and return the region Nigeria7”
One also would not deny the fact the court’s administration of justice could be politically masterminded, since it is the world-body’s justice centre, in which the international system is politically oriented. Hence if actors must have their way, they would follow the path of sult.
Although, the Bakassi Peninsula dispute settlement by the ICJ, may be adjudged political but the turism of which shall be revealed in the course of this research in outlining the activities of the ICJ and the settlement of the peninsula would unveil some facts.
Objectives of the Study
This work explore how international court of justice(ICJ) resolves and administer justice in the Bakassi Peninsula, and the determination of legal titles over the Bakassi Peninsula dispute settlement, given by various claimants it examines implicitly, procedures for resolving protracted(boarder dispute between nations and how the different sources of international contributes to the judgment before the court. Disputes are form unresolved conflict-especially when parties involved are unable to arrive at private settlement on a dyadic basis. This work high lights the centre role of international customary law in the determinating legal title of territory in boarder dispute between Nigeria and Cameron –indeed, the statement of the problem in the adjudication, the judgment and the control
versies of the peninsula is as follows.
Firstly did the ICJ conduct plebiscite among the people of Bakassi Peninsula in Nigeria before the final judgment.
Secondly, what were the yardsticks used in acceding the area to Cameroon.
Thirdly, why did Nigeria government fail to appeal against the judgment during the five years of transition programme of the Peninsula.
These among other questions are what prompted the study of this topic which tends to proffer answer to the above questions.
Scope of the Study
The study covers between 1945 and 2002 the year 1945 was the starting period when the United Nations organization was formed, and its agencies, one of which is the international court of justice was set up at Hague to adjudicate international disputes. The terminal date 2002 was the period Nigeria completed the withdrawal of their troops from Bakasi region
The Bakassi peninsula dispute settlement remain one the most controversial of international boundary dispute ever treated by the international court of justice(ICJ) controversial to the extent that it involved a lot of political, social legal and historical unveiling issues.
Therefore the work aimed at examining international conflict dynamics and resolution in the geopolitics of the Bakassi Peninsula dispute settlement between Nigeria and Cameroon. The work would be of great important to international communities, world teachers diplomats as well as student of law, and history, international relations and the general public
It showcases possibility of peaceful settlement of international dispute.