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It is recognized and considered that whatever the special consideration given to the physically challenged persons in terms of their education, it is still discrimination and outside context. This study explores the educational environment of students with physically challenged. It addresses the experiences of discrimination and stigmatization with physically challenged students and the impact of discrimination and stigmatization on their self perception. Whether the blind persons are considered for school for the blind, the deaf people are treated specially to have school for the deaf etc these efforts are discriminatory and not enough to assuage the plights of physically challenged. The physically challenged have no other places or worlds of their own, it is in the same society they are destined to live, breathe the same air, experience and share the same natural characteristics of the environment with their non-handicapped counterparts. The education that sees the physically challenged and able-bodied persons learning to live and relate together in the same regular classroom and school system will potentially establish good human relation that continues even after school. Simple sampling technique was applied in this research for collecting information from physical challenged students. Recommendation were made which include: the need to include physically challenged education in the education policy, equally and better opportunities, adequate provision of modern facilities for the physically challenged students in schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Background of the Study
1.3 Statement of the Problem
1.4 Purpose of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Basic Assumptions
1.7 Delimitations of the Study
1.8 Significance of the Study
1.9 Definitions of Terms
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Physical Challenged Persons
2.3 Classification of Person with Physical Challenges
2.4 General Constraints/Problems of the Physically Challenged Persons
2.5 Institution of Policies and Laws to Strengthen and Project the
Right of the PhysicalChallenged to Education
2.6 Benefits of Adopting Integration or Inclusion in the Education of
the Physically Challenged
2.7 Discrimination and Stigmatization of Physically Challenged Student in
2.8 Types of Challenges
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population and Sampling Method
3.4 Research Instrument
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Method of Data Collection
3.7 Techniques of Data Analysis
4.1 Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The physically challenged students are gifted students who have ability to be educated irrespective of their disabilities like the deaf, the blind, the dumb, the lame etc. There is a need to redirect national interest, support and understanding for the plight of the physically challenged away from the traditional attitude of \seeing them as qualified only for alms.
A situation where physically challenged people, expect those who could be taken care of by their families are neglected to relying on public emotions expressed in the form of aims, does not speak well for our sense of social responsibility. Yunusa (1993) believes that physically challenged does not mean they cannot contribute their quota to various facet of national development. Therefore, the physically challenged students in Oyo State posses the talents and all the aggregate of learning just like their counterpart at school. Education which is a life process must be provided for every individual, the physically challenge inclusive. The term “physically challenged” can be viewed in many ways mainly psychological and maladjustment.
Recently many social scientists have paid their attention towards physically challenged students not only in developed but also in developing countries. Although, technological advancement, globalization, internationalization of media and effort made by international institutions, including international non-governmental organizations have create some space for physically challenged students who are living to compete equal footing but situation is unfortunately still much unsatisfactory.
Attitudes of peers and teachers have a tremendous impact on the life of individual with a physically challenged. The person’s self concept, cognitive and social development, academic performance and general psychological health based on attitude of society. Physically challenged students self perception largely based on the attitude of society. Mostly respondents reported negative attitude of peers at basic education level where usually children look towards them surprisingly. But at higher education level students do not show any discriminatory attitude. Friends were more helping and cooperative at this level.
Before the universal declaration of human Rights in 1948, formal western education used to be an exclusive preserve of the rich, very elitist i.e few privilege ones had the opportunity of being educated among the Africans. Article 26 of the 1984 universal declaration of human rights sensitized the whole world that “education” is a “right” for all. It is upon this that education began to receive attention of various governments and valued by all nations as a veritable tool for achieving human, physical, political and socio-economic development. In Nigeria, government recognizes education as an instrument per excellent for effecting national development (FRN, 2004). Equally, very many efforts were put in place to promote education access, attendance and retention by a number of United Nations agencies, governmental and non-governmental organizations as well as other development partners or stakeholder in education enterprise. The UNESCO’S World Education conference held in Thailand in 1990 proclaiming the world resolve to eradicate illiteracy thereby declaring “Education for All” with government mandated to pursue this declaration (Abraham &Tabotndip 2006, Ebong&Asodike 2005).
Few privileged physically challenged are discriminated upon; despite having the qualities that even surpass that of the able bodied ones. It is in this regard that Akinpelu (2000) opines that “there is increasing recognition that no hard and fast line separates those who are and not physically challenged”. It is therefore a general dictum now that there are positive abilities in disabilities”, this assertion is manifested from series of impressive physically challenged engagements and vocations where tradition is fast shifting from street begging to productive vocational endeavours; ranging from beautiful fabrications, manufacturing and other intellectual display of talents in sports etc. aired by radio stations and on television even on the pages of newspaper and magazines.
WHO IS A PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED CHILD?
A physically challenged child is a child that lacks some things that made him/her incapable of living like other children; it could be the hands, legs, eyes, ears etc. in everyday life. The term physically challenged is often used to signify a physical defect, limb paralysis, partial or total blindness etc. all these features renders the child incapable of living in quite the same ways as the normally endowed.
The terms physically challenged, when used in a wider sense include intellectual disabilities and disadvantages which are to cause learning hardship in the light of the above discussion, the study will look at various hardship likely to be faced by the physically challenged child school. Previous researchers have revealed that behaviour are judged in terms of the societal existing standard therefore the ability of the physically challenged can be under estimated by their teachers because already they are termed “Special Children”. Many assumed that they cannot perform as well as the naturally endowed students.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The posture of things in relation to the education of the physically challenged and the response of government, organizations and those feeling concerned at addressing their plights and predicaments still calls for re-examination or review. A well over 19million Nigerians have been censured to be suffering from one disability or the other (NTA Network News, 2008). Even for the physically challenged person’s predicament, they are supposed to be more privileged rather than be less privileged as often being referred. Though, a number of efforts are put in place to improve and rehabilitate the physically challenged including their education. This is seen from the establishment of different special schools specific to the challenging conditions of these people, such that include schools for the blind, for the deaf and so on. With these efforts on special schools establishment, it is still understood by the researcher to mean a further promotion of discrimination against those who are physically challenged. If they cannot be streamlined or main streamed to be included in the regular conventional school system with well articulated supportive services, it means they are yet to be accepted as part of the society they find themselves. It is therefore imperative to conduct a serious investigation into whether the education of this category of people is within or outside context as regards their being recognized as members of the Nigerian society.
This study is to examine the various problems facing the education of the physically challenged students.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
- To x-ray the problems or constraints faced by the physically challenged persons in terms of their education and social existence.
- To make case for streamlining or mainstreaming the education of the physically challenged i.e inclusive education.
- To emphasize the imperativeness of instituting policies and laws that will strengthen and protect the right of the physically challenged to education so as to have their impact or contributions felt in the society.
- To reveal the accruable benefits of adopting integration (inclusion) of the handicapped education in the Nigerian society. Whether it is within or outside context in terms of access, opportunities and other implications.
- To correct the general belief of people that physically challenged cannot contribute significantly to the society.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To achieve the aforementioned purpose, the following research questions were posed:
- What are the problems or constraints to physically challengedpersons in terms of education and social existence?
- How can the education of the physically challenged be made inclusive i.e streamlined or mainstreamed?
- What can the institution of policies and laws strengthen and protect the rights of the physically challenged to education and in enhancing their contribution to the society?
- What benefits are there in the mainstreaming integration (inclusion) of physically challenged in their educational pursuits?
- What are the corrections of the general’s belief of people that physically challenged students cannot contribute significantly to the society.
1.6 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
- That being physically challenged does not affect student’s performance in learning.
- That there are no special problems that prevent the physically challenged students from performing effectively in learning.
- That it is possible for physically challenged to take part in learning activities’ like the normal students.
- That there is ability in disability
1.7 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The investigation embraces only one type of physically challenged condition which is physical deformity. This study will be carried out in some schools in Oyo State with physically challenged students.
Some of the major fundingsof the study were the numerous problems hindering full integration of such need. The problems include findings, inadequate provision of facilities and infrastructure among others.
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- Physically challenged students need extra attention in other to be successful in life
- They need special attention from their teachers before they can learn effectively.
- There are no special problems that can prevent the physically challenged children not to learn.
- The responsibility of teachers to the physically challenged students has to be greatly improved than that of the normal students.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
- Disability: This is a loss of ability of activity restriction or disturbance of the activity level of an individual.
- Physically challenged: This implies the inconveniences an individual encounter as a result of its impairments thereby hindering a person from living a normal life.
- Impairment: The state of having a physical or mental condition which means that part of your body or brain does not work correctly.
- Handicap: A permanent physical or mental condition that makes it difficult or impossible to use a particular part of your body or mind.
- Problem: A thing that is difficult to deal with or to understand.
- Ability: The state of being able to use a part of your body completely or easily.
- Disable: To injure or affect somebody permanently so that, for example, they cannot walk or cannot use a part of their body.
- Deform: To change the form or natural state of a shape of something.
Keywords: INVESTIGATING INTO PROBLEM OF EDUCATING THE PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS
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