This study, MUSIC AS A MOTIVATING FACTOR IN THE TEACHING OF PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Music is a phenomenon that has to do with the act of creativity, entertainment, communication and other experiences of life that enhances education and pleasure.
Music is used for entertainment purpose, satisfying spiritual needs and to earn a living, to pass or transmit message. Which depict music as a language, a medium of communication for both information and education, using various genres of music to take care of conceptual dimensions in music among which there are folks and recreational songs through which moral lesson are thought for social commitment and cognitive development of the child.
Music as a language of emotions motivates and arouse the interest of the child even to learn and participate in the classroom. Therefore integrating music into education helps to motivate the child, music in the classroom can be highly effective as a rich repertoire of motivating the learners. It helps in remembering learning experience, information, data, idea and concept. Music can also create a highly focused learning experience in which vocabulary and reading materials are assimilated at a great rate when information is put to rhythm and rhyme, the musical elements will provide an avenue to recall these concepts. In addition, songs, chant and poems can improve memory of content, facts and details through rhyme and melody.
The intentional use of music in the classroom will set the scene and pace for learning activities which makes the process more fun and interesting for the learners to be able to assimilate.
The aesthetic power of music affects lives in general, it helps to bring back powerful memories, creates an atmosphere for relaxation and focus, also helps to create desired moods and energy.
Music can be used to help the child to remember learning experiences and information, the active learning experience is that music creates a sound track for every learning activity, the soundtrack increases interest and activity of the information mentally, physically and emotionally. Music helps to stabilize mental, physical and emotional rhythms in order to attain a state of deep concentration and focus in which large amount of content information can be learned.
Music helps to motivate and energize learners, it helps to hold their attention during sleepy times and also helps the students to stay alert while reading or drawing.
Music as a motivating factor in the teaching of the pre-primary children can not be over emphasized. There is no blue print which can be applied to capture or captivate the attention of the average child in any activity in the classroom without the use of music.
The psychological need of the child has to be considered in terms of teaching and learning in order for the child to be able to understand and assimilate, for teaching to be fulfilled, there must be an element of motivation that will arouse the interest of the child in the classroom as music is said to be the language of emotion that helps to facilitate teaching and learning in the classroom.
The school provides opportunities for the social development of the child and accompanied with the assertions by scholars that children need the companionship of one another for a healthy social development. Is the need therefore, to provide the children with formal training or education and also for healthy development using music as a play way method in teaching and motivating the children since music helps to motivate the child at learning and helps the mental behaviour of the child. For example the issue of language, curiosity persistence, concentration and problem solving develop from a child’s spontaneous play and his relationship with others. The early childhood also known as the pre-primary level is a period whereby children learn about their own world primarily through the magical process of play through music of which the curriculum is more specific for childcare, and less strenuous than that of the primary section.
The pre-primary age range between 3-5 years old, children at this stage are seen as disturbers, disturbing at home and almost every where, and this postulated another reason for pre-primary education such that working class parent could go to work and concentrate.
The pre-primary level of education is more of or commonly consist of the nursery, kindergarten (children’s garden), play school, play group, childcare or daycare etc.
The importance of early years in cognitive development, and the trouble many families encounter in providing adequate early childhood nurturing and the advantages that such programs gives to students starting the next step in their education gave from the developments and growth of pre-primary school education. Nursery schools provide an attractive environment for children during the day, children find the environment exciting and stimulating, the world as a globalized village has created reasons for pre-primary education, noting that mothers who are supposed to take the responsibility of their own children has to delegate the duties to teachers and nannies because of the daily demands of livelihood and cost of living and to support their families had to work outside the home.
The school as a formal organisation helps in developing the child morally, socially and physically, the pupils and teachers make up the school environment, they possess the material and non-material resources that makes up that which we call the school. The material resources are referred to as the teachers and pupils, while the non-materials are things that help to facilitate learning, but music is a tool of motivation for both the teacher and the pupil in order for teaching and learning to take place. The school is mostly responsible for the growth of the child in the area of training or bringing out hidden potentials that the child possess which may not be discovered by the child personally and the parents early enough.
Teaching the children in their early years, one has to be very careful and aware of the possibilities of language development of the child through the use of music as a motivating factor to lay a good foundations for learning in the pre-primary section, it seems logical to start with sounds that are within the child’s experience e.g. alarm clock, engine, ambulance, whistling etc. This can bring about a kind of silence and concentration in the classroom to achieve the desired learning of identifying, interpreting and listening using such activities as a starting point, children are encouraged in the classroom to participate and to understand what the teacher is passing across to them. The learning ability of the child moves from simple to complex from general to specific, just as his or her physical co-ordination moves from general to precise.
Music helps the children in learning, it helps them to establish a positive learning state, to create a desired atmospheric condition that will put the children in a good state of learning. Music helps to build a sense of anticipation in the classroom, it helps to increase their attention and also create a cordial/friendly relationship among the children, it is an element full of excitement which should be present among children in their early years to aid their retentive memory, it also help them to concentrate in the classroom as children love to play and they make use of every opportunity as play time. information put to rhyme helps to provide a hook to recall for the child and helps to stimulate them thereby helping them to recognize patterns and sequence. Exposure to music at the early days of a child promotes language learning, creativity, co-ordination, self-esteem. Teaching and learning in the pre-primary section should be done by rote method this include nursery rhymes which can be reviewed at the primary levels letters on English, and mother tongue alphabets should be taught with music, teachers should be conversant/familiar with nursery rhymes that convey cultural norms, children are taught morals from their home and learn songs relating to birthdays, marriages and other social activities. Music helps the child to be creative through the exploration of nature and local environment. At times children play with toys, works of arts and musical instrument, when they see a guitar or type-writer they tend to fondle with them.
Teaching of the rudiments of numbers, letters, colours, shapes, forms etc, could be taught through songs e.g. “Ten green bottles standing on the wall”. Teaching should be done through singing and dramatization.
Songs, chants, poems and raps will improve the memory of facts and details, early exposure to music is also a great memory tool for the child and helps to create a good learning habit.
Music has a great effect on the childs attitudes and motivation to learn. And helps the child in developing critical listening skills, calm and focus the brain of the child; music should be used as an element of motivation because it helps to foster learning most especially at the pre-primary level, it helps to gain and hold the focus and attention of the pupil.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Looking at the motivating powers of music and the way it affects life generally and its choice as an appropriate method of teaching the pre-primary school pupil is a major problem.
The method of teaching in pre-primary school has been a challenge and has also been criticized by many scholars like PIAGET and DEUTSCH, nevertheless ABAYOMI ADEJOBI (2005) quoted DUROJAIYE (1977) stated that play is a fundamental way of learning for nursery school. Visits to some pre-primary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State and their method of teaching, which are more of real teaching than rote learning. The environment are not facilitated and rich enough for children to explore and discover knowledge and ideas through play. The children are subjected to rigorous learning and teaching which makes the learners less active in class debaring the purpose for which pre-primary education was created is the main concern of this research work.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this research is to focus on music as the most powerful influence affecting the learning of letters, words and numbers through the teacher’s correct and appropriate dissemination of knowledge in the classroom. Using music as a motivational tool to enhance and facilitate learning and also for the development of the child in the three domains of learning.
This research will finally provide successful and valuable guide lines for incorporating music into the teaching and learning environment applicable to the child between the age of three to five (3-5) years old.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
This research work will attempt to answer the following questions:
- How is music a motivating factor in the pre-primary school?
- What are the aesthetic power of music in the early childhood education?
- How does music greatly affects and enhance learning?
- What are the psychological needs of the child and how does music help to fulfill them?
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study focuses on the intentional use of music in the classroom to set a good scene of learning atmosphere to enhance the teaching and learning activities in the pre-primary school. This research further view the scope of integrating music into all other subjects (learning processes) of the pre-primary school for the cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of the child. This work will postulate guidelines for incorporation music into the teaching and learning experience of pupils at the pre-primary schools in Odeda Local Government.
1.6 IMPORTANCE OF STUDY
- This study indicates the role of music in the cognitive development of children in their early childhood days.
- This study will serve as work bench for further research work.
- It will serve as reference material for pre-primary, early childhood, and music scholars.
- It is to provide the avenue for improvement of the researcher.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Music: These are combination of sounds that are arranged in a way that is pleasant or exciting to listen to.
- Pre-primary: This is a level of education for children between the age of 0-5 years.
- Recreational: Connected with activities that people do for enjoyment.
- Folk music: Music in the traditional style of a country or a community.
- Nursery rhymes: Simple traditional poem for young children.
- Form: The particular way something is, seems, looks or is presented.
- Teach: To show somebody how to do something so that they will be able to do it themselves.
- Aesthetic: It is concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things.
- Assertions: A statement saying that you strongly believe the truth.
- Motivate: Is the reason why people believes in a particular way.
- Spontaneous: A person often doing things without planning to, because they suddenly want to do them.
- Strenuous: To show great energy and determination.
- Postulated: To suggest or accept that is true so that it can be used as the basis for a theory.
- Anticipation: The act of seeing that which might happen in the future and perhaps doing about it now.
- Rudiments: The most basic or essential facts of a particular subject, skill, etc.
- Cognitive: Connected with mental processes of understanding.
- Domain: An area of knowledge or activity:
- Researcher: Is somebody that finds out facts and information.
- Reference: A note in a book that tells you where a particular piece of information comes from.
- Childhood: The period of life when they are a child.
- Avenue: A wide straight road with trees on both sides.
- Scholars: A person who knows a lot about a particular subject because they have studied it in detail.
Keywords: MUSIC AS A MOTIVATING FACTOR IN THE TEACHING OF PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL
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