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This study was carried out as a researched-inquiry into the influence of parents on choice of vocational career of their children. The objectives of this work ascertain the real problems education. Hence, recommendations proffered as to the right guidance for school children when it comes to choice making and career development.
The research was limited to six (6) secondary schools in Ado-Odo-Otta Local Government Area of Ogun State. A total of 120 students, twenty (20) Senior Secondary School class 111 from each of the six randomly selected schools were used. The instrument used for this study was questionnaire, which contains two section. Section A inquires into the personal data of respondents while section B contain fourteen (14) questionnaire items. Items 1, 2, and 7 are designed to test the validity or otherwise of hypothesis one in this work. And items 11, 13 and 15 are structured to examine the constancy of the second hypothesis.
The questionnaire was administered to students and the data collected were analysed using the chi-square (x2) test.
The findings of the study show that:
- There is significant relationship between parent’s educational attainment and students’ career choice.
- There is significant relationship between parents’ socio-economic status and students’ level of career aspiration.
The findings emerging from this work imply that to a large extent a number of variables play significant roles in determining the career choice of a child, hence, the need for parents and school Guidance Counsellor to tutor children towards achieving maximum and best influential inter play of these variables with their instructive educational valves. In other words, the socio economic stats cum educational background of parents establish great effect on career development of their child.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Problem
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.5 Significance of Study
1.6. Scope of the study
1.7 Definition of Terms
2.1 Literature Review
2.3 The Valve of Career Development
2.4 The Various Theories of Vocational Development
2.5 Factors Influence Vocational Development and Choice
2.6 Review of Related Literature on Vocational Choice of Students
2.7 The Role of the Parents in Career Choice
2.8 The Significance of Parental Influence on Choice of
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population and Sample
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings
4.1 Data Analysis
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
4.3 Hypothesis 1
4.4 Hypothesis 2
4.5 Discussion of Findings
5.0 Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Our education system has been so fashioned by the former colonial rulers of this nation to teach us the “Three Rs” namely; reading, writing and arithmetic and added to these was religion. However, the curriculum then was meeting the need that education was introduce to serve; that of producing educated Nigerians to serve as teachers, evangelists or missionaries and to occupy clerical posts in the then colonial administration and in the few existing private. Companies (Alabi and Oyelade 1998).
However, as the nation is now moving towards scientific and technological advancement, we cannot deny the fact that more people are needed to work in the industries; and the only way we can meet the required manpower is basically through education.
Education is universally recognized as a good investment hence nations spend large sum of their annual budget to provide education for their citizens. It is common knowledge too that individuals too differ in their levels academic attainment motivation and education needs. For these reasons, a variety of educational provision is made with a view to meeting various needs. In the Nigerian context, the Nation policy on education (NPC, 1998) provides for an education structure that is meant to be both academic and vocational courses in the junior and senior secondary schools curricula.
The policy also noted the need for ‘ensuring the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of his society”. Vocational education is viewed as the form of education whose primary purpose is to prepare individuals for employment in recognized occupations (Oke, 2002). Vocational education helps to train youth for employment in industries commerce and other enterprises by exposing them to experience that provide them manipulative, information and attitudinal skills. This types of education also trains adults who are already employed, and whose skills may have become obsolete and requires either an update of skill in this occupation or a re-training in other occupations. In this context, the type of vocational education programmes made available to youths and adult must be relevant to their needs and the needs of the occupation.
Vocational training in the Traditional African Education is aimed at acquisition of specific training in local art and craft (Fafunwa, 1974). In the traditional society, vocational education tends to engage the boys for masculine activities in the community while the girls are prepared for feminine activities, for women hood, matrimony e.t.c, thus cooling, sewing, washing and general house keeping are usually emphasized.
Fafunwa and Aisiku (1982) observed that the children are not free to choose the trade of their own choice but are bound to follow the guidance of their parents, thus preserving the family trades and occupations. It would be observe that this educational practice is tailored to make individuals fit into his society as a contributing member for a useful living. Career aspirations and subsequently, Crystallized choices are often discussed in connection with the adolescent who are seen as the potential member of the labor force. Scarcely do educator, counselors and vocational psychologist in developing countries focus attention on the preliminary vocational development of the child that leads to proper career choice identification as an adolescent or young adult. If functional education should work adequately, such as the present 6:3:3:4 educational system in Nigeria advocate, appropriate career orientation of the school child must be ensured right from the beginning part of formal education. This concept of vocational development approach lies at the bedrock of an individual’s interest stability, early identification of ability. Areas of giftedness and weaknesses.
Right from time immemorial, parent have always influenced the vocational choice of their children. In the pre-colonial era, parents made sure that their children; especially the first male child was trained in the family vocation. This was purely for the purpose of enhancing social and economic prospects or more often, to secure protection or the glamour and popularity derivable from such vocation. In fact, the choice of a vocation in principle has depended largely on what the individual intends to gain from it materially or other wise.
The introduction of formal education did not change very much the position of things. The family is still a major influence in the vocational choice of the student. Parents in most cases without due consideration of their interests, aptitude and abilities or the manpower need of the nation. Choice of future vocation is very important. It is on this base that Idiaghe (2000) said that the period of adolescence which is from the age of 12-18 years and to which the secondary school students belong is characterized by the problem of deciding on a future occupation. Involved in this choice is decision on a future. This is why Edward de bone (1969) said “as soon as a youngster leaves school, he/she has to deal with the future in respect of plans, decision, choice and imitative that are going to take place. In line with this, Idighe (2000) advised that such choice if wrongly made would close doors and confine future career decision within narrow limits.
Occupational selection is of critical importance in the lives of young people. It influences almost every aspect of a persons life. It can change individual valves, ideas and standard. It involves decision making and interpersonal influence. Sometimes, interpersonal relationship may not be rewarding.
It is an accepted phenomenon that parents are interested in the future welfare of their children. Parents guide the line of thoughts of their children right from early age of their lives by inculcating into them certain social values so they could mature into a social being participating in the social roles of the society. The effort on the part of the parents has far reaching effects on the child personal life. They decide on the type of schools they want their children to attend because the quality of the school and aspiration of the children and their opportunities for employment and subsequently, the roles they play in the society.
Parents in Nigeria influence their children’s choice of career without considering other factors that are relevant to the choice of career. Some parents even consider their children as misfits when they do not pursue the career of their choice. Parents in particular, prefer occupations that are known to have high prestige valves for their children. Although parental influence on occupational choice is quite popular, some secondary school students make occupational choices, which by chance happen to correspond with that which their parents want them to do.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Occupational choices have been known to be made by parents for their children without the consideration of where the child’s interest lies or what child is capable of doing and due to this kind of parental influence, some students have found themselves, to be unhappy for not being allowed to do what they found to be of interest to them and what they believe they can do best. This non-conformity in values has vital consequences on the occupational aspirations and subsequent choice as this affect the individual’s productivity.
The central problem of this study is the influence of parents towards their children’s choice of vocational education as a career.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to find out the extend to which parents influence affect career choice among secondary school student in Ado-Odo-Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State.
In this study, variables that constitute the parental influences on students choice of career were identified in order to provide useful information for counseling practices.
The following hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance
- There will be no significant relationship between parents educational attainment and career choice of their children.
- There will be significant relationship between parents socio-economic status and students’ choice of career aspiration.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is the hope of the researcher that at the end of the study, an insight would be gained into occupational preference of students and the influence of parents on the preferences made.
The findings would help the Guidance Counselors to know more about student’s problems and how to help them by giving them proper career counseling. Thus, if properly handled, it would save students from future frustration in choosing the wrong profession and the nation would also benefit from proper employment and productivity of individuals.
Also, it would provide educators and planners with the awareness of facts that can help them in finding ways of meeting the personal needs of students.
Finally, the study would provide useful information, which will guide future generations of students in their choice of vocation. It would also provide necessary guidance to students who are presently in secondary schools.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on the influence of parents with regards to the choice of occupation by their children. Parental influence on the choices of occupation by children cannot be studied in isolation without mentioning the key variables which could have intervening forces with parental influence during career decision-making process of students.
The study will be limited to five selected secondary schools in Ado-Odo-Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State, Since it is not possible to cover all the schools in the area. The survey shall focus on students in senior secondary school SSSIII.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
INFLUENCE: This entails a relatively stable learned disposition to respond to social object in a particular manner, reflecting evaluative concepts or belief about the object. Influence can be positive or negative.
VOCATION: This refers to a particular occupation, business, or professions, or trade or calling to a particular activity
PARENTS: Father and mother
CAREER: This refers to a sequence of occupation, jobs and positions throughout a person’s working life.
EDUCATION: This is simply the process of transmitting and committing a body of knowledge, skills and attitude, which naturally should lead to a change in behaviour.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION: This refers to preparation of individuals for employment in recognized occupation. And providing appropriate training in skills, abilities, and knowledge to individuals to enable them to enter and progress in their field of occupations.
OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION: This refers to person’s orientation towards occupational goals.
Keywords: PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON STUDENTS CHOICE OF VOCATIONAL CAREER IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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