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PSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECT OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE ON ADOLESCENTS IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

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[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: PSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECT OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE ON ADOLESCENTS IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
[icon type=”icon-book”]: Chapter 1 – 5
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This study, PSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECT OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE ON ADOLESCENTS IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: PSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECT OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE ON ADOLESCENTS IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION


RESEARCH BODY

ABSTRACT

In this study, psycho-social effect on school violence on adolescent, a case study of Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Osiele, Ogun State. The sample comprised 100 students selected with thee random sampling technique. Data were analysed using simple percentage method. The few professionally trained, counselors, we have in our school should be more active than are present. They should organized educational talks and conferences on psycho-social matter to avoid violence in the society. Parents should try as much as possible to play positive role and also enforcing discipline to reduce violence in the society. Government should fight against psycho-social violence in our society such as raping, sexual harassment, cultism etc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background of the Study

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Study

Scope and Limitation to the Study

Research Question

Significance of the Study

Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

What is Violence?

Types of Violence?

What is Adolescent Violence?

Causes of Adolescent Violence?

Solution to Adolescent Violence?

Effective and Promising Programs

The Effects of Bullying

Who is at Risk for School Violence?

School Base Violence

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology

The Area of the Study

The Design of the Study

Population of the Study

Sampling Procedure

Instrument of the Data Collection

Validation of the Instrument

Method of Data Collection

Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1       Presentation and Data Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations

References

Questionnaires

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

School violence has become a social problem especially among tertiary institutions students in the contemporary world. The term violence is defined by threats, verbal and physical attacks, vandalism,ostracisation, extortion and other delinquentbehavior perpetrated by students against others in the school community. Exposure of students to violence according to Finekelhor, Ormrod, Turner, Hamby and Kracke (2009) occurs from association with friends, class-mates or an adult. That is, students and adolescents experience violence daily in the homes, schools and communities. Unfortunately, these experiences are likely to facilitate major behavioural and socio-psychological problems evidence in the students interpersonal relationships with others in the school and in most cases carried on to adulthood. Regularly, researches have pointed to the prevalence and existence of violence among students. For instance, the National School Safety Centre (2006) cited that in the Nigeria alone, 28% school violence was recorded in our institutions. According to American Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2004), nearly half of every child have either witnessed or experienced a violence incident once and upwards of 30% of these children encountering such tormenting behavior on a regular, consistent basis. In addition, an earlier research conducted by Haynie, Nansel, Fitel, Crump, Saylor, Yu& Simons – Morton (2001)affirms the existence andprevence of school violence among students of institutions.

Considering the confirmed prevalence of school violence as reported in researchers, it will not be far-fetch to assume that students who are younger or seen as physically small would be more susceptible to victimization in school. Thus, school violence victims are likely to be higher among transitional students in the higher institution (Graig, 2004). The term transitional students as used in this study refer to young newly admitted students from the secondary school to higher institution.

The need to understood the school violence risks students are exposed to especially at the transitional phase became highly important because most people see threats and physical abuse among earlyadolescents as innocent bullying with no intent to harm or a customary rite of passage that students must unfortunately endure and hopefully overcome (Carney &Merrel 2011;Lipman, 2003; Whitted&DUpper, 2005).

Violence among higher institutions is one of the most visible forms of violence in the society. Around the world, newspaper and the broadcast media report daily on violence by gangs, in schools or by young people on the streets. The man victims and perpetrators of such violence, almost everywhere, are themselves adolescents and young adults. Violence among adolescents contributes greatly to the global burden of premature death, injury and disability.

School violence deeply harms not only its victims, but also their families, friends and communities. Its effects are seen not only in death, illness and disabilities, but also, in terms of the quality of life. Violence involving adolescents adds greatly to the cost of health and welfare services, reduces productivity, decreases the value of prosperity, disrupts a range of essential services and generally undermines the fabric of society.

The problem of adolescentsviolence cannot be viewed in isolation from other problem behaviors. Violent people tend to commit a range of crimes. They often display other problems, such as truancy and dropping out of school, substance abuse, compulsive lying, reckless driving and high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. However, not all violent youths have significant problems other than their violence and not all young people with problems are necessarily violent.

There are close links between adolescents violence and other forms of violence. Witnessing violence in the home or being physically or sexually abused, for instance may condition children or adolescents to regard violence as an acceptable means of resolving problems. Prolongedexposure to armed conflicts may also contribute to a general culture of terror that increases the incidence of youth violence.

Understanding the factors that increase the risk of young people being the victims or perpetrators of violence is essential for developing effective policies and programmes to prevent violence.

The prevalence of violence and anti-socialbehavior among school campuses has constituted a great worry to the campus community, parents, governments, and society at large. As a matter of fact, the rate at which youth vandalize both school and public properties during violence or protests coupled with incidences of stealing, resisting authority, impulsiveness, rape, cultism, introduction of arms both to themselves and others, bullying, fighting and the use of fire arms among other acts of violence constitutes a threat to peaceful co-existence and societal serenity.

Indeed, both fatal and non-fatal assaults, which involve young people, contribute greatly to the burden of premature death, injury and disability. Unfortunately of campus violence do not rest only on the victims and perpetrators but also their families, friends and communities. There attracts the attention of researchers to analyze and understand factors which determine this antisocial act as a way of finding solutions to the problem.

The construct “Violent behavior” is defined as behavior that includes physical injurious attacks and life threatening use of drugs, murder or suicide and the intent to cause physical injury, damage or intimidation (Elliot, Hamburg andWilliance1998)’Divyer, Osher and Hoffman, 2000) Relating the construct to academic setting, Estevel, Jimenez and Musitu (2008) described a violent student at the one who fails to comply with the school’s regulation and monitor the interactions in the classroom and the social setting through the punitivebehaviours towards the others that imply manifest, relational, reactive or proactive aggressions, which based on the estimation of Fagan and Wilkinson (1998), are due to different reasons such as achievementand maintenance of a high social status; to have power and control over other student being “avenging” imposing their own law and social norms since they consider the exiting ones unacceptable or unfair: challenging the authority and opposing the established social controls that they feel oppressive and to experiment new risky behavior.

Showing the disparity between violence and a related term, aggressive behavior, Sanmartin(2004) argued that while aggressive behavior is guided by the instincts and could be demonstrated by other animal species, violence is the product of the interaction between biology and culture and it entitles a conscious intentionality. However, the two terms would be used interchangeably in this study. Also, clarifying the major aspects of violence Anderson and Bushman (2002) highlighted two major dimensions of violence which are hostile violence which is referred to as unplanned, rage based, impulsivebehavior usually after being provoked and with the main objective of causing damage and; instrumental violence which is concerned with a violent planed behavior with the main objective of achieving specific objectives by the aggressor and not as a reaction to a previous provocation.

Little, Brauner, Jones, Nock and Haivley (2003) hypothesized two major functions of violent behavior which include: Reactive Violence which according to them is attributed to behavior that entitle a defensive answer towards a provocation and proactive violence which include behavior that entitle and anticipation of the benefits, such behavior is deliberate and controlled by external reinforcements. In relation to school violence, Estevezet. al. (2008)identified two types of school violence which are Vandalic actions and verbal and physical aggressions. According to these authors, Vandalic action are violence directly directed towards objects or school materials such as breaking desks or doors, painting names, messages and grafitties on theschool walls. On the other hand, verbal and physical aggressions are violence directed towards individuals such as teachers (staff) or peers and serious problems of discipline in the class such as disobeying the school internal regulations.

School violence for example, possession and use of weapons, severe physical attacks, grabs the headlines and the public’s attention and results in implementation of zero tolerance policies and produces, such as metal detectors, locker searches security personnel, and expulsion (Welsh, 2000; Welsh, Jenkins & Greene, 1996). However, although incidents of school violence are devastating, these occurrences are relatively rare. (Astor, Meyer, Benbenishty, Marachi&Rosemond, 2005; Astor, Vargas, Pitner, & Meyer, 1999; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004; Kaufman et. al. 2000; Welsh, 2000). In an effort to identify the causes of these devastating incidents, researchers have broadened their focus to include the chronic victimization of students by the other student commonlyreferred to as low level violence (Dupper& Singer, 2004); Haynie et. al. (2001; Nansel, Overpeck, Haynie, Kvan, &Scheidt, 2003; Nansel, Overpeck, Haynie, Kvan, &Scheidt, 2003; Smith-Khuri et. al. (2004). The most common form of low-level violence is bullying, defined as threats or intimidation, verbal cursing, teasing, or both; stealing passively or by force; and physical attacks (Flannery et. al., 2004;Nansel et. al., 2001; Nansel et. al., 2003 Newman Holden, &Delville, 2005; Olweus 1877, 1993, 2003).

Although bullying is not as overt as weapons offenses and fatal shootings, bullying occurs with greater frequency and may have more profound and lasting effects on student mental health and school performance (Astor, et. al., (2005; Eisenberg &Radel, 2005; Kaufman et. al., 2000; Nansel et. al., 2001, Nansel et. al., 2003).

Even students not experiencing bullying are affected by bullyingadolescents who are not direct victims of bullies at school ‘may be victimized by the chronic presence of violence” American Psychological Association, 1993, p. 42). In addition, research shows that it is especially harmful to those who witness low-level acts of violence within the school environment if such acts are tacitly approved of by school personnel (Shidler, 2001). Thus, researchers study the effect of bullying on the psychosocial environment of the school in conjunction with their research of individual bullying behaviours (Haynie et. al., 2001; Ma, 2001, Olweus, 1993, 1994).

The purpose of this study was to examine how the frequency of aggressivebehaviours (for example, bullying) experienced by students (as perpectrators and victims) contributed to their interpretation of their schools’psychosocials environment and how those environment affected the existence of ongoing aggressive and avoidance behaviours. The first hypothesis was that higher prevalence of victimization by bullyingbehaviours should negatively predict the psychosocial environment of the school. The second hypothesis was that the students’ perception of safety at school should positively predict is psychosocial environment. The third hypothesis was that contributing to bullying behaviours should negatively predict the psychosocial environment of the school. The fourth – hypothesis was that the psychosocial environmental of the school should negatively predict students’ avoidance responses to bullying behavours.

Furthermore, cross-validation was used to determine whether the proposed relationship across different samples. In other words, this provided bot exploratory and confirmatory validation of the proposed and final model.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This work is concerned with the psycho-social effects of school violence on adolescents in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta. School violence has got adverse effects an adolescent especially those who are new in the school environment.

School violence among adolescents in high institution do not only affects the victims or perpetrators but also their immediate environment.

During school violence which is common among adolescents, school and public vandalisation of properties are on high side.

Violence among groups of individuals especially during cult clash do not only destroys properties, also, lost of lives is recorded.

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This research work is aimed at looking into the psycho-social effect of school violence on adolescents in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.

It is also aimed at looking into same of the causes of violence in the school. The work will also be looking into the involvement of some school personnel in school.

Finally, this work will be aiming to proffer solutions to some of the thing that cause violence among adolescent in the school.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION TO THE STUDY

This work is concerned to look into the psycho-social effects of school violence on adolescents in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta. This work would not be extended to other areas due to financial constraint and time factor and more importantly, to enhance thoroughness in the research.

  • RESEARCH QUESTION

During this work, the following questions were raised:

  1. What are the causes of psycho-social violence in school?
  2. What is psycho-social violence among adolescents in school?
  3. What are the types of psycho-social violence?
  4. What are the solutions to social violence in school among adolescence?
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant because it will help to understand the meaning of psycho-social violence among school students.

It will also assists in knowing the causes of violence in schools.

Finally, to also know solutions and preventive measures to psycho-social violence in schools.

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  1. Adolescent: A young person who is developing from a child into an adult.
  2. Violence:Behaviour that is intended to hurt or kill something.

Bully: A person who uses their strength or power to frighten or hurt weaker person.

Keywords: PSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECT OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE ON ADOLESCENTS IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION



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