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THE STYLISTIC FEATURES OF THE CHOICE OF WORDS RENDERED IN GREETINGS BY PEOPLE IN THEIR EXPRESSIONS

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: THE STYLISTIC FEATURES OF THE CHOICE OF WORDS RENDERED IN GREETINGS BY PEOPLE IN THEIR EXPRESSIONS
[icon type=”icon-book”]: Chapter 1 – 5
[icon type=”icon-book-open”]: 37 Pages
[icon type=”icon-basket”]: #3, 000
[icon type=”icon-doc-line”]: Ms Word format

This study, THE STYLISTIC FEATURES OF THE CHOICE OF WORDS RENDERED IN GREETINGS BY PEOPLE IN THEIR EXPRESSIONS contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: THE STYLISTIC FEATURES OF THE CHOICE OF WORDS RENDERED IN GREETINGS BY PEOPLE IN THEIR EXPRESSIONS


RESEARCH BODY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This work studies the use of abbreviations in social media focusing on seasonal greetings (Christmas and New year) on whatsapp. It has been noted that the use of abbreviated words on whasapp has become rampant among youths. In this chapter, we look at various theoretical concepts serving as background to the study. These include: language, styles (definition and types) and stylistics. The discussion on social media will be elaborated in the second chapter in which we have various concept.

1.1 LANGUAGE

What is language?

According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, language is:

The system of Communication in speech and writing

that Is used by people of a particular country or area.

The Chamber’s Dictionary also defines language as human speech; the speech of a particular people or nations.

Thinkers such as “ROUSSEAU” and “KANT” have argued that language originated emotion and rational and logical thoughts. The number of language in the world varies between 5000 and 7000. Language in general may refer to the ability to use system of communication or the set of rule that describes or makes up these systems.

In the human brain, language is processed in various parts. Social interaction helps humans to learn language in early age and children speaks fluently when they are almost 3 years old. In human culture, we can see that the use of language is deeply embedded in it. Language also has many social and cultural uses, such as pointing out group identity, social development, and entertainment.

1.1.1 VARIOUS DEFINITIONS OF LANGUAGE

A definition describes language as a formal language of signs ruled by grammatical regulations of combination to communicate meaning. This definition shows that the human language consist of rules that relate specific sign to specific meanings, Ferdinand de Saussure was the first to introduce the technical view about language and his structuralism remains foundational for many approaches to language. Another definition states that language is the mental faculty that allows human to learn language and to be able to speak the language.

This definition explains the special ability of human to use the language, as well as the growth in human brain. The acquisition of language is natural to human in an environmental/area where language is accessible; children raised in that environment will acquire language without learning it. In an environment where people live together without a uniform language, language may develop automatically, for example CREOLE language (a standardized form of pidgin).

Language can also be used for communication, which allows humans to exchange verbal utterances. This explains how language is important to the society and how human can use it to express themselves in their environment. Language can also be defined as a medium by which human communicate within a community. Language is said to be the older phenomenon used by man at creation. It is the tool which man communicates perfectly with among members of their community. The sociologist defines language as “a means of socialization and interaction”. Language could represent either the object experience or human experience. Plato insists that communication is possible because of the existence of language. It is a way of developing and establishing the way human relate with each other. With the help of language, human expresses their thought, desire, emotion, and feelings. Language represents ideas that exists independently and prior to language.

According to Akindele and Adegbite (2005, 1-3) language is unique, characterized by arbitrary symbols, it is conventional and culturally transmitted; it is productive and creative phenomenon. This shows that out of the minimum number of speech, sounds, or letters of alphabet produced in a language, a limitless number of sentences and utterances can be generated.

Also, Akindele and Adegbite(2005:21), gave a definition of language according to Gumperz(1962) as “a body of verbal signs abstracted from totality of communicative behaviour on the basis of certain structural or genetic considerations”. Here, Gumperz defines language as “all the variety which shares a single superposed variety and is connected by a series of mutually intelligible varieties”.

1.2 STYLE

Style can be called a “dress” of one’s thought, a person’s way of expressing his thinking, emotions, feelings, as well as the way the person speaks and write. Style may refer to language habits shared by a set of people at a particular point in time over a period. For example, the style of speaking in public, style of the Augustan’s poet’s etc. style has long been associated with literature, as an important characteristic of a beautiful writing. Style is also a way in which a writer writes and the techniques the writer uses in his/her writing. It differs from author to author and depends upon one’s syntax, word, choice, and tone. The voice that the reader listen to when reading a book created by a writer is called “STYLE”. There are four basic literary styles used in writing. These styles differentiate the work of different authors from another. They are:

  • Expository or argumentative style
  • Descriptive style
  • Persuasive style
  • Narrative style

EXPOSITORY OR ARGUMENTATIVE STYLE:

This is a type of style that tells the reader about a specific or particular topic and in the end, the author leaves out his own opinion about that topic.

DESCRIPTIVE STYLE:

          It is a style employed for painting pictures in words. Some writers may use poetry in painting the picture.

PERSUASIVE STYLE:

          This type of style aims at persuading and convincing the readers. The writer tries to give reasons to make the reader believe his point of view.

NARRATIVE STYLE:

This is a kind of style, where the writer narrates a story. It includes short stories, novels, biographies etc.

Style differentiates a good writer from a poor writer. A good poet makes sure that any word removed from his lines and verse would weaken the poem as a whole. An author’s style is what is used to distinguish him from other writers. Styles can be described as the way an author writes as well as the voice of the author. What makes each author different is the use of ideas, literary devices, and sentence structure. Style can also mean a process of writing e.g., how the author uses grammar and punctuation marks.

In English language, style is the way in which a work is presented through the voice of the author. When you read a piece by one author and then another piece by a different author, the way by which one can tell that they were written by two different individuals is the way they wrote whatever it is you just read.

All figures of speech are created with the element of style. In order for a writer to succeed, he/she has to find his/her own literary style. Style in literature has two different ways in which it can change. One is when the writer is making his ability or a talent clearer and the other is when the writer is writing for different audiences. Style is not what an author writes but the manner in which he writes it. Every author has a style of writing. It is an author’s unique way of communicating ideas. Some author focuses on sound devices such as alliteration, onomatopoeia, and rhythm. Style is the way in which something is written. Style also influences the reader’s impression of the information itself. It includes diction and tone. The main goal of style is to make your information in a manner that suites both the audience and the purpose of the writing.

1.3 STYLISTICS

          Stylistics is part of applied linguistics that studies the interpretation of texts in reference to its linguistics and tonal styles. Stylistics as a discipline may establish theory capable of explaining specific choice made by individuals on social groups in their use of language such as the study of folk art, literary production etc. stylistics are used to know the relationship between the form, and effect of what is going on within a language. Leach & short (1981), defines stylistics as: “the linguistic study of style”. Banjo (1982), defines it as: “the extortive study of the use of language in literary works”. Fowler also defines stylistic as: “a type of criticism which employs the concept & methodology of linguistics”. Samson Dare (1991) defines stylistics as: “systemic methodical or scientific study of style”.

Re-search shows that the scope is something narrowed to pay attention on the more captivating feature of literary language. For example, the language of poetry is more likely to reveal the secrets of its construction to the stylistician than the language of plays and novels (crystal, [1987]). Poetry can be described as practical stylistics as well as conventional styles of language H.G  Widdowson examines the traditional form of the epitaph as found on bead stones e. in a cemetery for instance:

                                     His memory is clear today

                                     As in the hour be praised

                                     Away (widdowson [1992])

Widdowson makes the point that such sentiment are not really interesting and he suggest that they should be dismissed as “crude verbal carving” and crude verbal disturbance nevertheless, widdowson identifies that they are real attempt to convey feelings of human less and preserve  affectionate recollection of a beloved friend or family member. Some study in stylistics may range from popular texts and from advertising copies to news, non-fictions and popular culture as well as political and religious discourse. Stylisticians are people that practice stylistics, and study the use of language in their various manifestations. In stylistics, attention is given to the use of language of literature. According to investigations, stylistics has a practical approach to text. Many stylisticians who adopt this method of analysis approach their text through transformational grammar, systemic grammar, and semantics. We can conclude that stylistic theory, at the time of writing, has reached a level where it will do well to wait for practical analysis to catch up, so that the theoretical category would be tested against a lot of data.

Keywords: THE STYLISTIC FEATURES OF THE CHOICE OF WORDS RENDERED IN GREETINGS BY PEOPLE IN THEIR EXPRESSIONS



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