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AN EXAMINATION OF DEICTIC REFERENCES IN SELECTED DAILY SUN EDITORIALS

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[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: AN EXAMINATION OF DEICTIC REFERENCES IN SELECTED DAILY SUN EDITORIALS
[icon type=”icon-book”]: Chapter 1 – 5
[icon type=”icon-book-open”]: 57 Pages
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[icon type=”icon-doc-line”]: Ms Word format

This study, AN EXAMINATION OF DEICTIC REFERENCES IN SELECTED DAILY SUN EDITORIALS contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: AN EXAMINATION OF DEICTIC REFERENCES IN SELECTED DAILY SUN EDITORIALS


RESEARCH BODY

Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Journalism

1.2 Editorials

1.3 Features of an Editorial

1.4 Types of Newspaper Editorials

Chapter Two

2.0 Theoretical Discussions

2.1 Editorial as A Form Propaganda

2.2 What Is Persuasion?

2.3 The Place of Language in the Media

2.4 The Language of the Media

2.5 The English Language

2.6 Reference

2.6.1 Types of References

2.7 Deixis

2.7.1 Types of Deixis

2.8 Anaphora

2.9 Deictic and Anaphoric References

Chapter Three

3.0 Analysis

Chapter Four

Conclusion and Recommendation

4.0 Conclusion

4.1 Recommendation

References                                                                                                 

Specimen                                                                                                   

Appendix                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Writing can be in different forms and for different purposes. We have letter writing, essay writing, prose writing, play writing, speech writing, poem writing, instructional material writings, news writing, article writing, feature writing, editorial writing etc. All these forms of writing require certain skills in addition to the style employed. Apart from the employment of certain codes and symbols for inscription in writing, there are some other things that are usually in place to aid any style of writing employed. These things include among other things the various techniques of writing which have been approved by linguists as aids to effective writing.  Some of these techniques of writing are: parallelism, comma splices, references, etc.

Our focus in this work is writing in the mass media. This is because the mass media appears to be the closest of all the writings to the populace. It is also the most effective secular writing which can be used to influence the masses. Specifically, we shall be working on the editorial writing in newspaper.

Our interest is in looking into the place of references as a technique of writing in the editorials. The reason for the choice of research is because the place of references seems to be given little attention in the recent writing tradition. This is not to say that references are not usually made in recent writings. The point simply is that, although we come across references in writings, many writers do not understand the idea of references. In other words, reference making in the work of many writers can be said to be borne out of coincidence, rather than borne out of knowledge.  Hence, we shall be investigating how deictic references help to achieve cohesion in writing, and how ambiguity is cleared by the employment of proper reference. The deictic references made in the editorials are our aim.

Since we will be working in the area of the mass media, it is important for us to know certain things that are basic to mass media. Hence, before we begin the analysis of the editorials, we shall discuss concepts like: journalism, editorials, types of editorials, editorial as a form of propaganda, language of the media, the English language, etc.

1.1 JOURNALISM

Journalism involves story telling with a purpose, which is to inform citizens. It can be further explained as the activity or profession of writing for newspapers/magazines, or ofbroadcasting news on radio or television. Also, it is the practice of investigating and reporting events, issues, and trends to the mass audience. In other words, it is the gathering, the processing, and the disseminating of news to an audience. The people involved in this activity of gathering and packaging news and information for mass dissemination are called journalists. This practice entails writing, editing, designing, and photographing. The field covers individuals, organizations, institutions, governments, and businesses. Furthermore, it also covers the cultural aspects of the society such as the areas of arts and entertainment. Journalism is the main well of information for the society.

According to Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel (2001) in the work The Elements ofJournalism, journalism has certain elements. These elements are:

  • Journalism’ first obligation is to the truth.
  • Its first loyalty is to the citizens.
  • Its essence is a discipline of verification.
  • Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover.
  • It must serve as an independent monitor of power
  • It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise.
  • It must strive to make the significant interesting and relevant.
  • It must keep the news comprehensive and in proportion
  • Its practitioners have an obligation to exercise their personal conscience.
  • Citizens too have rights and responsibilities when it comes to the news.

There are three main media through which journalism is being carried out. These media includes: the print media, the broadcast media, and the digital versions. While the print media entail disseminating information through newspapers and through magazines, the broadcast media entail disseminating information through radio, and through television, and the digital version disseminates information through news websites and applications.

However, in this work, our focus is on the print media, that is, the newspapers and the magazines, which has one of its key sections as the editorial section. Hence, the next thing we shall be discussing is the Editorial.

1.2 EDITORIALS

According to the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, the term editorial can be defined as “a piece of writing in a newspaper that gives the editor’s opinion about something, rather than reporting facts”. It is an article that is built on the opinion of the writer, i.e. it is a medium through which the writer’s thought on a particular issue is expressed. Through editorials, one is able to tell one’s concern on an issue at hand to the public. Not only does this publication give an opinion or a perspective on the topic or issue at hand, it also gives facts to support its stand. Hence, a good editorial will include relevant quotes and important fact. This article is also characterized by its interest in proffering solution to the issue on ground.This kind of article is not only found in newspapers but also found in magazines. Writing editorials involves the following steps:

  • Introducing the problem
  • Taking a stand
  • Stating the reason(s) for your position
  • Giving evidence and examples to back your reasons
  • Shutting down the opposition by providing relevant facts
  • Presenting a solution to the problem.

1.3 FEATURES OF AN EDITORIAL

  • It states the writers’ position or stance on an issue that has more than one side.
  • It includes facts, examples, and other details supporting the writer’s position.
  • It has clear organization.
  • It is a kind of persuasive essay.
  • It engages issues rather than engaging personalities. That is, it avoids name calling.

However, it is noteworthy to state that, though news stories and editorials “tell”, they are different from one another. While news stories inform, editorials argue for a particular line of thought on a given situation in the editorial. News articles attempt to be objective, while editorials are put forth as opinion. That is, in news articles, the opinion of the reporter does not matter. The business is to give information to the readers on certain happenings in the society. This is different from the editorial, which has the main feature of publicizing the writer’s opinion on the issue at hand.

1.4 TYPES OF NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS

It has been discovered that there are different types of newspaper editorials.In other words, all editorials are not the same. Some of these editorials are as explained below.

  • Editorials of Argumentation:This type of editorial takes a firm stand on the issue at hand. In this case, the writer argues to win the reader over to his side. This type of editorial is often called Editorial of persuasion. An exampleisthe Daily Sun’s newspaper editorial on “CBN’s quest for constitutional backing for SWF”, (Monday, May 12, 2014.)
  • Editorials of Interpretation:This type of editorial tries to explain the meaning or effect of the situation on ground, or of a news event. Here, the writer does not directly criticize. The different sides of an issue are presented to the reader, who is left with the right to judge the situation as it appeals to him/her.As its name connotes, it simply interprets situations. The Daily Sun newspaper editorial on “Mandatory HIV tests before marriage”,(Tuesday, May 13, 2014) is an example of this type of editorial- the editorial of interpretation.
  • Editorial of Information: This type of editorial strives to give information on the subject of news stories, and sometimes adds minimum explanation to the fact. This editorial can involve defining terms. The Daily Sun newspaper editorial of Tuesday, May 6, 2014 on World Bank’s #1.28trn support programme is an example of the editorial of information.
  • Editorial of Criticism: This editorial brings to limelight the good and the bad features of a situation addressed in news stories. Its aim is to influence the readers’ sense of judgment on the issue at hand. However, at the end of this editorial, a solution is suggested. An example of this is the editorial on New security MeasuresatAirports in the Daily Sun newspaper (Monday, May 5, 2014).
  • Editorial of Special Occasion: This type of editorial talks on a special day or occasion. It is usually written to dwell on the day or occasion at hand. A typical example of this is the editorial on No respite yet for Nigerian workers in the Daily Sun newspaper of Thursday, May 1, 2014 which happens to be the workers’ day annual global event. However, it should be noted that this workers’ day editorial can also be regarded as an editorial of criticism.
  • Editorials of Tribute, Appreciation, or Commendation: As the name connotes, this editorial praises a person or an activity, commends a person or an activity, or pays tribute to a person or an activity that has influenced the society positively. The editorial on Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1927-2014) in the Daily Sun newspaperof Friday, May 2, 2014 is an example of this type of editorial.
  • Editorials of Entertainment: This is written in a lighter mood.It is aimed at evoking laughter, smile, and chuckle, and at the same time putting across the truth. Although it is humorous in nature,it can be satirical in some cases.
  • Mood Editorial: This kind of editorial states a philosophy in place of an argument. It often has its subject matter as nature or emotion.
Keywords: AN EXAMINATION OF DEICTIC REFERENCES IN SELECTED DAILY SUN EDITORIALS



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