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THE PREVENTION OF CRIME IN NIGERIA AND AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRISONS

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: THE PREVENTION OF CRIME IN NIGERIA AND AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRISONS
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This study, THE PREVENTION OF CRIME IN NIGERIA AND AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRISONS contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: THE PREVENTION OF CRIME IN NIGERIA AND AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRISONS

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENT       

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

1.7     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.8     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

2.2     THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.3     EMPIRICAL REVIEW

2.4     SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     INTRODUCTINTRODUCTION

3.2     RESESEARCH DESIGN

3.3     STUDY POPULATION

3.4     SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     DATA FOR THE STUDY: INSTRUMENTATION

3.6     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA PRESENTPRESENTATATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1     INTRODUCTION

4.2     DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2     CONCLUSION

5.3     RECOMMENDATION

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

It would be agreed by almost everyone that hurting someone or subjecting them to pain is wrong. However, punishment, by definition, involves the infliction of pain. Does this make punishment wrong? Philosophers are divided on this issue. One group believes that inflicting pain as punishment is fundamentally different from inflicting pain on innocents, and therefore is not inherently wrong. Another group believes that punishment is a wrong that can be justified only if it results in a “greater good” (Murphy 1995).

The different approach to punishment can be explained thus;

The first philosophical approach (or rationale) is that punishment, strictly defined, is not evil. Retributionis a term that means balancing a wrong through punishment. While revenge is personal and not necessarily proportional to the victim’s injury, retribution is impersonal and balanced.

Incapacitation and rehabilitation are not really related to punishment at all. Incapacitation prevents an individual from inflicting further harm for at least as long as the individual is under control. Strictly speaking, it is not punishment because it does not necessarily imply pain. To put all criminals under a drug that induced sleep would be to incapacitate them, not necessarily to punish them. If one takes away the ability of the criminal to commit crime, this also would be incapacitation; for instance, chemical castration has been discussed and, in some cases, inflicted on sexual offenders. Note that there is no physical pain involved, only the incapacitating nature of the chemical. This is obviously a punishment, but it could also be termed incapacitation because it takes away the ability to commit the particular crime. House arrest, electronic bracelets, or other means of monitoring the movements of criminals have all been suggested as less expensive alternatives to incapacitating criminals in prisons. Prison, of course, has become synonymous with incapacitation because as long as the person is incarcerated, they cannot commit crimes against the rest of us. Of course, prisoners continue to commit crimes in prison against other inmates, and there is at least some limited ability to continue to commit some crimes, for instance, credit-card abuse over prison phones or computer fraud using computers provided in vocational programs. One issue of incapacitation is how long to hold the individual.

Rehabilitation is not punishment either, although punishment may be used as a tool of reform. Rehabilitation is defined as internal change that results in a cessation of the targeted negative behavior. It may be achieved by inflicting pain as a learning tool (behavior modification) or by other interventions that are not painful at all (for example, self-esteem groups, education, or religion). Under the retributive philosophy described earlier, rehabilitation and treatment are considered more intrusive and less respectful of the individuality of each person than pure punishment because they attack the internal psyche of the individual. They seek to change offenders, perhaps against their will. This is probably more sophistry than reality, as anyone who has worked with offenders can attest. Very few people enjoy the experience of being a drug addict or sex offender, and most prison programs have limited capacity to change individuals against their will anyway. In a later chapter, we will explore the concept of rehabilitation and the various modes of individual change. To conclude, the utilitarian rationale for punishment must determine that the good coming from punishment outweighs the inherent evil of the punishment itself.

The beneficial aspects of punishment include deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation or reform.

There are different methods of punishment. Targets of punishment include one’s possessions, one’s body, or one’s psyche. Punishments throughout the ages have attacked the body. Corporal punishment (meaning “to the body”) included drawing and quartering, flaying, whipping, beheading, dismembering, and numerous other means of torture or death (Newman 1978). Fines and dispossession of property also have been common throughout history. Conley (1992) writes that fines were more common than physical torture during many time periods. Execution was an economic as well as a corporal punishment because the person’s estate was forfeited to the monarch. Economic and physical sanctions gradually have given way to imprisonment or lesser deprivations of liberty (probation or parole). We have reached the point today (at least in this country) where punishment is almost synonymous with imprisonment. As early as the end of the 14th century, the purpose of imprisonment changed from custody until physical punishment was inflicted, to custody as punishment itself. An increasing number of laws emerged with precisely defined prison sentences. The church also used imprisonment as a punishment for clerics (Conley 1992). Gradually, imprisonment for crime became almost indistinguishable from the other institutions that developed for vagrants and idlers— the bridewells,workhouses, and gaolsall were responses to the same class of citizens.

Of all the punishments described above, prison is perhaps the most complex. It affects the prisoners’ material possessions because they can earn little or no income while incarcerated, they may lose their job or livelihood, spend their life savings, and have their total lifetime earning capacity affected. It affects the prisoner’s body because he or she is under the control of others and very little freedom exists. Imprisonment may result in actual physical harm, from attacks bycorrectional officers or other inmates or from illnesses or injuries left untreated.

The Nigerian prison system, as it is known today, was introduced by the British during the time when Nigeria was her colony (1861–1960). The British left a two-tier system (Native and Federal) of prisons which became unified into one prison system in 1968. The Nigerian prison system is headed by a Director who is assisted by Assistant Directors, Chief Superintendents, Superintendents and Assistant Superintendents of prisons. These are all senior officers. The junior level is comprised of wardens of various grades. Both junior and senior officers wear uniforms. Classification of prisons and prisoners is rather loose and sometimes arbitrary—leading to occasional mixing of first offenders and career criminals. The aim of imprisonment is not specifically spelled out in any statutes or decrees. The problems of prison administration in Modern Nigeria include high staff turnover rate, inadequate classification of inmates, etc. To alleviate such problems it will be necessary to review and improve the general working conditions for staff, find alternatives to imprisonment, and carry on more research on criminality in Nigeria. Many of these will be easy to carry out if the government provides sufficient funding. (Adewale R. T., 2011).

Nigeria is among the developing countries of the world, and it’s experiencing a prevalence of rising crime waves, criminal intentions and varying degree of delinquencies. Nigeria has been on the global crime map since 1980s. The nature of these crimes includes armed robbery, murder, rape, car theft, burglary, fraud, bribery and corruption, food and drug adulteration, gambling, smuggling, human trafficking, kidnapping, drug trafficking, money laundering, internet scam, advanced fee fraud and other illegal activities. It is preposterous that in Nigeria, there is no adequate will and genuine intention by any government to rid the society of the criminal tendencies and manifestations, as people in the leadership positions are also guilty of corruption and crime. An example of such flagrant disregard for diligent prosecution is the case of the former Governor of Delta State, Nigeria, Chief James Ibori who was found not guilty of corruption in Nigeria, but has since been jailed in the United Kingdom money laundering crime. The trial of many former Governors for corruption while in office has been going about 8 years with no end in sight, while they have moved on to other political offices while the trial drags on without diligent prosecution. Dambazzau (2007) defined crime as a pattern of attitudes and behaviors directed both at reducing the threat of crime and enhancing the sense of safety and security to positively influence the quality of life, and to develop environments where crime cannot flourish. It is also the anticipation, recognition and appraisal of crime risk and the initiation of some action to reduce or remove it.

1.2   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

This research will look into the classification of prisons and prison staffs and their specific functions so as to inculcate proper administration for crime prevention in Nigeria.

Also, classification of prisoners is sort of loose and sometimes arbitrary— which leads to occasional mixing of first offenders and career criminals. This research work is directed towards looking at these offences and how crime can be prevented in Nigeria.

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This work is designed to provide answers to the following questions:

  1. Will the imprisonment method of punishment reduce crime rate?
  2. What is the relationship between prison administration and crime prevention?
  3. Can there be effective prison administration and crime prevention in Nigeria?
  4. Why has the prison administration failed in Nigeria?
  5. How can crime be prevented in Nigeria?

1.4   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

  1. To critically cross examine the administration of prisons in Nigeria
  2. To identify factors and measures that can improve prison administration in Nigeria.
  3. To understand and relate the scope of imprisonment and prison administration in order to prevent crime in Nigeria.

1.5   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The researcher shall restrict the scope of analysis to the geographical region: Nigeria and the general overview of Nigerian prisons. The study shall focus more on prison administration and how it can prevent crime in Nigeria. Crime rate will also be studied so as to prevent it in relation to prison administration.

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE   OF   THE    STUDY

It will look critically into the reduction of crime rate in Nigeria by efficient method of prison administration.

It will serve as basis for further research on prevention of crime rate in Nigeria.

1.7   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

As the case usually is, there are certain limitations the researcher will be faced with in the cause of this work. One is in the area is finance for transportation to various prisons in Nigeria. Apart from finance, also considering the fact that research work of this nature is often done within a time bound, the study therefore cannot be exhaustive in its entirety.

However, it is hoped that these constraints will be checkmated by making the best use of the materials available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work, therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study.

Keywords: THE PREVENTION OF CRIME IN NIGERIA AND AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRISONS


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