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Computer science education, information and communication technology (ICT) are at present becoming one of the most important elements defining the basic competences of students. Information technology integrates medial, informative and computer science education, but also all the educational subjects mentioned in the curriculum basis of general education. In science and biology education there increasingly appear concepts of integrated teaching showing the student the world in a holistic manner. The principle of universal activity of students in cognitive, emotional and motivations well as in practical sphere is preferred. More and more often attention is paid to the fact that the contemporary problem is not so much lack of information as its surplus, and the crowd of information as well as its unnecessary excess of details may be an effective tool of disinformation. Hence forming students such skills as selection, evaluation and organizing of information (forming its structure) seems justified, so that they can serve drawing conclusions (Wikipedia, 2012).
Ability to work with information and communication technologies (ICT) is recognized as one of the key competencies necessary for success in life and competition in the labour market (Levy and Murmane, 2001; Salganic. 2001: Eurydice, 2002) which every citizen should posses (Recommendation of the European parliament and of the council, 2006), and term ‘computer literacy’ was introduced to distinguish between users and non users of ICT (Bawden, 2001). Concerning ICT, two important roles are assigned to schools. The first is to fulfill the expectation of society for demanding ICT skills, and the second is to raise the quality of education in the schools with the support the ICT. Many scholars, teachers and teacher-trainers have recognized the potential of ICT to enhance teaching and learning and as a side effect the number of published articles about the use of ICT in school work is enormous (Bell and Bell, 2003). However, despite significant investment in training and resources, in reality school are still far below the level of ICT use in science, transport, communication industry, and many other fields (Hawkins 2002; Hepp, Hinostroza, Lawal and Rehbein, 2004; Machin, McNally and Silva, 2007; Eteokleous, 2008).
Usage of ICT in schools is so diverse that it is almost impossible to list all possible applications. Taylor (1980, 2003) recognized three roles of computers in a classroom as tutor, tool and tutee. Introduction of ICT in biology lessons can raise not only level of knowledge but students attitudes towards biology as well (Haunsel and Hill, 1989; Kubiatko and Halakovia, 2009). As biology (Science) teachers we additionally have to distinguish between two groups of applications. In the first group are generic application used in all subjects like word-processing, searching for information, communication using emails and multimedia presentations. In this case if a science teacher does not use ICT in a classroom damage to the students is limited because they can achieve missing skills with their work in other subjects, or at home (Kuhlemier and Hemker, 2007). In the second group are applications adapted or developed to be used in science teaching (MCFarlane and Sakellariou, 2002) like imaging systems in microscopy (McLeans 2000; Fidhe, Bonvin and Bosman, 2006), virtual dissections (O’Byme, Patry, and Cannegie, 2008), simulations (RamasundaramGrunwald, MangentCameford and Bliss, 2005) virtual laboratory (Jenkins, 2004) and real laboratory exercises with data acquisition system ( Sorgo, Hajdinjak and Briski, 2008). The most important difference among these two groups of applications is that if a science teacher does not use such application in teaching students in most cases they would not be able to compensate loss with work in other subjects or at home.
The introduction of computers into the teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools has followed two general tracks. The first one was the introduction of the compulsory subjects, computer science and or informatics, into the curriculum. The second one involved the use of computers in a rainbow of different of different subjects. The introduction of computer into student work in other subjects is encouraged by the authorities, but the final decision about their use in teaching is left to the discretion of the teachers. The difference between these two paths is that teachers from the first group are trained professionals in computer science and informatics while teachers from the second group are more less enlightened ‘computer amateurs’. Occasionally cooperation between a teacher of informatics and a teacher from some other subject occurs and enhance student work (Sorgo and Logar, 2006).
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The ubiquity, availability and exponential growth of digital information and communication technology ( ICT) create unique opportunities for learning and teaching in the senior secondary school biology curriculum (Wilhelmina S. VanRooy, 2012) Digital technologies make it possible for emerging disciplinary knowledge and understanding of biological processes previously too small, large, slow or fast to be taught indeed, much of bioscience can now be effectively taught via digital technology, since its representational and symbolic forms are in digital formats (Levy and Murmane, 2011).
Ever since ancient times people have devised various techniques for communicating their thoughts, needs and desires to other. In early civilized time, people tend to congratulate in geographically localized clusters in which communication were adequately achieved through speech and written messages. As civilization spread over larger geographical areas, a variety of long-distance communication, methods were tried such as smoke signals, carries pigeons etc, one of the earliest know optical links, was the use of five signals by Greeks in the eight certain events ( Nigerian communication and Resource Development, 2005).
However, because of environmental and technology limitations it generally turned out to be faster and more efficient to send letter message by courier over the road network. The discovery of telegraph by Samuel; F.B Morse, 2003 ushers in a new development in communication (Shedd, 2004)
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Today, as the educational sector is faced with series of changes &reform, it is good to reflect on matters concerned with biology and the dissemination of biology knowledge and lessons. Numerous teaching strategies have been develop which correspond to the accommodation of students’ need and diverse learning method. One of such strategy involves the use of information and communication technology.
Investigations reveal that many learners at the senior secondary school in Odeda Local Government Area strongly detest the manners in which the biology teachers handle and deliver biology knowledge and lesson (Oshodi, 2005, Anaya 2006, Busari 2009).
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the extent of the impact role of information and communication technology on teaching and learning of biology and to find out whether students that were taught with ICT aided materials such as computer system, internet facilities projectiles, video player e.t.c perform better that those taught with textbook only.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study can be used to:
Maximize the positive utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun state.
Disclose various strategies that can be employed by biology teachers in teaching biology in senior secondary school in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State.
Determine the most appropriate material (ICT aided material) in teaching biology in senior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State.
Control examination malpractice and several related conduct that confronted with biology in senior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study dealt with an investigation into the role of ICT on teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary school in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. Two secondary schools were randomly selected for the study, while the populations consisted of students from each school and divided into two where the first set of pupils from each school were taught with ICT aided materials the other set were taught without ICT aided materials. Each set of students consist of 20students were proposed for the research work.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the cause of this research several factors were responsible in limiting my research work to the aforementioned ranges:
Lack of ICT infrastructures.
Inadequate power supply.
Limited timeframe for exploration.
Insufficient finance and support for information gathering.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following research hypothesis was formulated for the study.
Ho: there is no significant difference in the performance of students taught ICT and those that are not exposed to ICT in the two selected senior secondary schools.
H1: there is no significant difference in the performance of male students taught with ICT and female students taught with ICT in the two schools.
H2: there is no significant difference in the performance of students taught with ICT among the two schools.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
- ICT: This simply means Information and Communication Technology
- ICTMATERIALS: These are technology invented tools used for teaching and learning of mathematics during the teaching-leaning process, e.g the digital calculator.
- TEACHING: This refers to the transformation of teachers acquired knowledge or skills to the students or learners.
- LEARNING: This is the learners ability to effect a change in behavior as a result of external stimulus (learning)
- AIDS: These are materials used in facilitating teaching-learning process.
- STIMULUS: Anything that rouses the mind of the learner e.g teaching
Keywords: THE ROLE OF ICT ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
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