This study,USAGE OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords:USAGE OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
1.1 Background to the problem
Teachers in all nations constitute a major input in the accomplishment of educational goals and objectives. The National policy on Education (2004) in Nigeria reiterates that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Hence, teachers are indispensable within the teaching – learning process. Also trained and effective teachers are the principal assets of any educational system. Aminu (1987) aptly observes that teachers constitute not only a vital input to education but also a major drive in the production process and in the determination of the output system. Teachers touch and shape destinies. Ajayi (1997) states that teachers are the ones to make it possible for a child to be grounded in his mother tongue, acquire one or more Nigerian languages, plus English and one or more foreign languages. They are the ones to ensure a proper foundation of scientific education for the child.
In the light of this, it is impossible to think of education without the contributions of teachers. That teachers have a vital role to play is not in doubt, and this fact has been recognized by international development organization. In fact, teacher- training rates highly in the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which has now acquired the status of a framework for measuring development (Omolewa, 2009).
In Nigeria, the late President Musa Yar’Adua listed education among his seven point agenda that will guide his administration in the vision 20-2020 which was aimed at ensuring that Nigeria is placed among the leading 20 world economies by the year 2020. Omolewa (2009) asserts that it must be cleared in our minds from the outset that at the centre for the attainment of these goals and vision is the teacher. For it cannot be disputed that the teacher basically determines the relevance, quality and sustainability of education. Indeed, the world has always been a teacher’s world whether this is appreciated or not.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a generic term that refers to technologies which are being used for collecting, storing, editing and passing on information in various forms (SER, 1997). A personal computer is the best known example of the use of ICT in education, but the term multimedia is also frequently used. Multimedia can be interpreted as a combination of data carriers, for example video, CDROM, floppy disc and Internet and software in which the possibility for an interactive approach is offered (Smeets, 1996).Multimedia now includes a flash drive. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become key tools and had a revolutionary impact on how we see the world and how we live in it. This phenomenon has given origin to the contemporary and advances in our ways of life. ICT is having a revolutionary impact on educational methodology globally. The following are the functions of the use of ICT in education as described in literature (SER, 1998, Moonen and Kommers, 1995, Pilot, 1998).
- ICT as object. It refers to learning about ICT. Mostly organized in a specific course. What is being learned depends on the type of education and the level of the students. Education prepares students for the use of ICT in education, future occupation and social life.
- ICT as an ‘assisting tool’. ICT is used as a tool, for example while making assignments, collecting data and documentation, communicating and conducting research. Typically, ICT is used independently from the subject matter.
- ICT as a medium for teaching and learning. This refers to ICT as a tool for teaching and learning itself, the medium through which teachers can teach and learners can learn. It appears in many different forms, such as drill and practice exercises, in simulations and educational networks.
- ICT as a tool for organization and management in schools. Educators at the teaching profession (especially at the tertiary level) needs to be able to exploit the potential of ICT to meet his or her teaching objectives. Educators at the College of Education level must not only equip themselves but equip trainees to evaluate examples of ICT, both during their training and in their future employment; to make sound judgments about when, when notand how to use it, and to become confident and competent users of it.
The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid changes in technology,social, political, and global economic transformation. However, the field of education has not been unaffected by the penetrating influence of information and communication technology. The fact that ICT has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning, and research in teacher education the world over cannot be over-emphasized. ICT has, therefore, provided opportunities for student teachers, academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informa lteaching and learning (Yusuf, 2005b, pp. 316-321).
Although it is recognized resources will differ from school to school,opportunities to create effective learning and teaching environments makes it necessary for tutors to not only talk about ICT in the classroom but also to model best practice by demonstrating different ways in which technology can enhance the delivery of ICT. ICT within the context of ICT teaching should be used to create stimulating and motivating leaning environments and provide a breadth of experiences to trainee teachers. Tutors should therefore provide experiences that clearly demonstrate to trainees how they too can useICT in the delivery of ICT to the pupils they teach.
The role of the ICT tutor is therefore to enable trainee teachers to have access to the latest technologies and to give them experience of ICT in a variety of contexts during their ITT. The methods used to deliver ICT through ICT bytutors should enable trainee teachers to integrate ICT within their teaching and provide opportunities for them to use the technologies they will encouter in school.
Tutors, in order to provide for the need of their trainees, need to be aware ofthe current thinking about good practice. They should also have knowledge and understanding of relevant research so they can support the needs of the trainees. Ministries of education (both at Federal and States levels) and various educational organizations see the need for students to develop understandings and proficiencies in using ICT in appropriate ways to suppor tlearning and to develop appropriate technology knowledge, skills, and dispositions for the 21st century. For this to occur standards need to be determined and teachers need to have a framework to help guide them as they design learning that uses and integrates technology. The primary goal of ICT in education is to enable stakeholders in education to develop national standards for educational uses of technology that facilitate school improvement in all nations with particular reference to Nigeria. This is to define standards for students, integrating curriculum technology, technology support, and standards for student assessment and evaluation of technology use.
The world has turned to be a global village now as a result of Information Communication Technology (ICT). Simply put, we are in the era of information age. These technologies have brought profound changes to all human endeavours. The ease of data collection, processing, transmission, and interpretation provided by these technologies have engendered the flow of information across boards and between individuals, cultures, nationalities,corporate bodies and organization as never before, causing great technological, economic and social changes and binding the world ever more closely together. Murray (2003), posited that economic forecasts and business analysts predict that the 21st century jobs will require information processing skills. Development of information literacy, therefore, becomes inevitable for workers of the future.
The call for the 21st century literacy in ICT simply reflects the fact that the call for an educated citizenry and work force continues to rise to reflect changes in the society: Hardly could we not talk of involvement of ICT in all sectors of life; be in medicine, business, banking, politics, military,economics, insurance, and even education. That is the more reason we say this and that empowerment, also this and that reformation and development.If all sectors are reformed in terms of ICT, education too should not be leftout. It is widely believed that education should now be ICT challenged and biased. The topic of such as availability and use of ICT in Colleges of Education has become imperative because of the fact that these institutions would produce teachers that need to teach/educate populace of values of ICT and its integration. Again by considering the teaming learners in this domain of education, in which a lecturer has to teach over five hundred (500)students at a go without use of ICT nothing or little can be achieved. Gone are those days that a teacher would stress himself/herself to the extent that he/she will no longer be useful to his/her family or society after teaching learning process must have taken place. Education at this level should be ICT compliance as it is being found useful in other sectors such as in e-banking,e-commerce, e-mail, e–this or e-that, though we heard of e-learning of recent but its awareness and/or efficacy in Colleges of Education is seriously indoubt.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Nigeria education is lagging behind expectation and desire. Hence, the need to draw up and design learning process in the future and the role of ICT to support this process, with a focus on teacher training. There is the need for a powerful role of teacher training in the process of educational innovation and the implementation of ICT. The teacher training institutes such as the Colleges of Education and Faculties of Education in the University provide the teachers of the future with the assumption that teachers are the key figures in arranging learning processes.
These institutions, expectedly, anticipate new developments and prepare prospective teachers for their future role. The nature and extent to which ICT is being used in education is considered to be a result of synergy between‘top-down’ and ‘bottom up’ processes. Institutes such as Colleges of Education where prospective secondary school teachers are being trained have to shift their focus from dealing with present education to that of ‘future education’. This invariably will make teachers to be prepared and encouraged for the implementation of ICT in secondary education.
Although it is recognized that, resources will differ from school to school,opportunities to create effective learning and teaching environments makes it necessary for tutors to not only talk about ICT in the classroom but also to model best practice by demonstrating different ways in which technology can enhance the delivery of ICT. ICT within the context of ICT teaching which expectedly is to be used to create stimulating and motivating leaning environments and provide a breadth of experiences to trainee teachers. Tutors are therefore expected to provide experiences that clearly demonstrate to trainees how they too can use ICT in the delivery of ICT to the pupils theyteach.
ICT is being used as an integrated component of the learning environment,pre-service teachers developed new understandings, skills, and dispositions with regard to technology integration into teaching and learning. A teacher educator is supposed to continue to develop this capacity in his work, to develop more opportunities for this type of learning within his courses, and to help the teachers in training (pre-service teachers) continue to build upon what they have learned. A teacher educator, should normally ask himself how he intends to continue to be part of this capacity building?ICT is being used as an integrated component of the learning environment,pre-service teachers developed new understandings, skills, and dispositions with regard to technology integration into teaching and learning. A teacher educator is supposed to continue to develop this capacity in his work, to develop more opportunities for this type of learning within his courses, and to help the teachers in training (pre-service teachers) continue to build upon what they have learned. A teacher educator, should normally ask himself how he intends to continue to be part of this capacity building?
The role of the ICT oriented educator is, therefore, to enable trainee teachers to have access to the latest technologies and to give the pre-service teachers experience of ICT in a variety of contexts. The methods that will be used to deliver through ICT by tutors should enable trainee teachers to integrate ICT within their teaching and provide opportunities for them to use the technologies they will encounter in school.
Tutors, in order to provide for the need of their trainees, need to be aware of the current thinking about good practice. They should also have knowledge and understanding of relevant research so they can support the needs of the trainees. Hence, the need for this research to assess the application of information and communication technology in teaching and learning in Tai Solarin College of Education, Omu-Ijebu.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research work is to assess the application of information and communication technology in teaching and learning in Tai Solarin College of Education, Omu-Ijebu. For this to be achieved, the following objectives will guide the research:
- To determine the level of availability and use of ICT in Tai Solarin College of Education, Omu-Ijebu.
- To assess the role of prospective teachers in an ICT based environment and their required competencies.
- To examine the impact of ICT usage in the Colleges of Education.
- To proffer valuable suggestions to the problems identified.
1.4 Research Questions
The main research questions are:
1 What is the level of availability and use of ICT in Tai Solarin College of Education, Omu-Ijebu?
2 What is the role of prospective teachers’ in a richly ICT-designedlearning environment and what competences are required for thisrole?
3 What is the impact of ICT in Colleges of Education?
- What are the valuable suggestions to the identified problems?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the research.
H01: ICTusage and availability has no significant impact on teaching and learning inTai Solarin College of Education, Omu-Ijebu.
H02: ICT effectiveness will not significantly impact on the prospective teachers and their required competencies.
H03: ICT application will not significantly make teaching and learning more productive.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The essence of this research work is to primarily study the application of information and communication technology in teaching and learning in Tai Solarin College Of Education, Omu-Ijebu. The research intends to focus on staff and students of TASCE, Omu-Ijebu, Ogun State for easy analysis of data. This will reduce cost and avoid complexity that may arise as a result of having a very large population. But since in most cases the characteristics of students are generally similar, the research findings would be generalized to include all students of Nigeria Colleges of Education.
1.7 Significance of the study
This research will be of benefit to scholars especially researchers, students, parents, policy maker and other stake holder with the interest of student development at heart. The study will help researchers with more information on application of information and communication technology in teaching and learning especially in Tai Solarin College Of Education, Omu-Ijebu. It will be relevant in assisting staff and students in understanding the diversity of ICT in the 21st Century/information age. It will provide relevance material for students and other researchers undertaking similar research.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Information and Communication Technology: often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
Teaching: It includes all the activities of providing education to other. The person who provides education is called teacher. The teacher uses different method for giving best knowledge to his students .He tries his best to make understand students.
Learning: The acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.
Education:The act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life
Keywords: USAGE OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
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